The Coastal Archaeology and Dune Geoarchaeology of Lake Michigan

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Transcript of The Coastal Archaeology and Dune Geoarchaeology of Lake Michigan

  • The Coastal Archaeology and Dune Geoarchaeology of Lake Michigan

    Presented by William A. LovisWilliam A. LovisDepartment of AnthropologyMSU MuseumMichigan State University

    Alan F. ArbogastDepartment of GeographyMichigan State University

    G. William MonaghanGlenn A. Black Laboratory of ArchaeologyMathers MuseumIndiana University

    Teaching Climate Change: Insight from Large LakesScience Education Resource Center, Carleton CollegeAmerican Quaternary Association Biennial MeetingLarge Lakes Observatory and Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of MinnesotaDuluth MN 19-20 June 2012(Photo by A. Arbogast; used with permission)

  • Graphic by G. W. Monaghan. Modified from Monaghan and Lovis (2005; Table 3-1)

  • The basins varied in configurationRelative to changing elevations or water planesHigh lake levels in one basin may correlate with lows in others(Graphics modified from original by Rob MacDonald)

  • (Graphic by R. MacDonald from original by W.A. Lovis)

  • (Modified from graphic by R. MacDonald)

  • This period was characterized by mobile hunters and gathers.PaleoIndians hunted caribou, and actively scavenged mastodon.They made stylistically distinctive spear points.Some of their occupations are found on relict beach ridges of early lake stages. (Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)

  • Adept hunters of deer using the atlatl or spear throwerIntensive acorn, walnut and hickory nut collectorsEarly exploiters of native copper(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)

  • These people participated in exchange systems so vast that they brought Gulf Coast conch shells to the upper Great Lakes, and Lake Superior copper was transported across the Eastern United States(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)

  • (Photos by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)

  • (Photos by W. Lovis; right -MSU Museum Archaeological Collections;left - State of Michigan Archaeological Collections)

  • The Woodland period begins variously around 2000 to 2500 years ago across the Great LakesIt was initially defined on the basis of ceramic technology, and divided into three subperiodsWoodland peoples domesticated indigenous seed plants as well as tropical newcomers such as squash and corn (maize)Many village sites are found in coastal zones due to the moderating lake effects of the Great Lakes

  • An uncarbonized Cucurbita pepo (pepo? ovifera?) seed (ca 16x8 mm) collected from organic deposits 3 m deep adjacent to the Green Point Site. Sample dated 3064-2844 cal BPCucurbita Rind (BorderlineDomestic Variety) From the Marquette Viaduct Site. Note That Squash is NOT Indigenous to Michigan. Sample dated 45164248 cal BP(Photo by G. Urquhart, used with permission)(Photo by G. Monaghan, used with permission)

  • 4000/20003000/10002000/ 01000/10000/2000BP/ AD-BCEAC Possible non indigenous domestic Squash (Cucurbita pepo)EAC Large domestic Squash Variety (C. pepo)EAC Small domestic Squash Variety (C. pepo)EAC Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)Earliest Maize (Zea mays mays) microbotanicalsEAC Limited non indigenous sumpweed (Iva annua)EAC Limited Goosefoot/Lambsquarter (Chenopodium sp)Maize (Zea mays mays) macrobotanicals relatively abundantLimited Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)Wild Rice (Zizania aquatica)Limited Maize (Zea mays mays) macrobotanicals LateWoodlandEarly &MiddleWoodlandLateArchaic

  • Note the position of the primary 140 frost free day contour lineacross the lower and upper peninsulas of Michigan. AsaYarnellpresented a slightlydifferent contour map in his major1964 work.(http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/images/big03.gif)

  • Left pottery rim section from the Upper Great Lakes Laurel cultureMiddle Hopewell style pottery from the southern Great LakesRight Late Woodland cordmarked pottery from southern Michigan(Photos by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)(Photo by A. Fortier; State of Michigan Archaeological Collections, used with permission)

  • Woodland peoples, and their Upper Mississippian counterparts, built burial and effigy mounds, and earthworksThey mastered the use of the bow and arrowAnd developed elegant fishing technologies based on spears and gill nets(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)

  • To synthesize existing geomorphological, geological, and archaeological data on coastal dunes, and to gather supplementary information from fieldwork as appropriateTo better understand the processes responsible for the cycling of coastal dune activation and stabilizationTo better understand the contexts, both landforms, and elevations, in which coastal dunes are formedTo better understand the ages and timing of coastal dune formation and cyclingTo better understand the ages and contexts in which archaeological sites will be formed and preserved

  • Dune geomorphological documentation of eolian activation and stabilization cyclesCoastal geology and glacial geology documentation of uplift, subsidence, outlet incision, lake level fluctuation, beach terrace formationArchaeological documentation of burial and stratification in coastal and dune contexts

  • (Photo by A. Arbogast; used with permission)

  • 3) Lots of sand!Americas North CoastLake SuperiorLake HuronLake ErieLake OntarioCanadaU.S.Mississippi River

  • This Regional Map Shows the Distribution of Dunes and Dune Fields in Michigan, Displayingthe Primary and Secondary Project Study AreasAlong the Coastal Zone of Lake Michigan inMichigan. (Graphic by G. Monaghan, used with permission)

  • (Graphic and photo by A. Arbogast, used with permission)

  • OSL date of 92090 BP/1080 AD from 18m below thedune crest, from below soilzones, but at uppermost partof Unit 1 eolian sand.

  • Three Curves Modeling Changes in Water Levels During the Mid- To Late- Holocene Corrected for Uplift Near Port Huron(Graphic by G. W. Monaghan, used with permission)

  • Jan 1996Feb 2007

  • Direction of Uplift

  • (Graphic by G. Monaghan; used with permission)

  • (Photo by W. Lovis; used with permission)

  • ONeil Site (20CX18), Charlevoix County, Michigan

    Note stratification in swale behindforedune complex adjacent to Inwood Creek. Basal occupation dates ca. A.D. 1200, upper soil horizon was stable by the turn of the 18th century A.D.

    (Photo by W. Lovis, graphic from Lovis 1973; used with permission)

  • This site sits atop high dunes at Petoskey. The basal occupation is primarily Middle Woodland, the upper occupation is primarily Late Woodland. Initial stabilization occurred ca. 0 A.D. (Photo by W. Lovis, used with permission) 1873-1280 cal BP2043-1512 cal BP2163-1856 cal BP

  • Conventional 14C DatingExisting dates recalibrated and placed stratigraphically; limited new dates obtained on charcoal incorporated into existing sequence

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS)Dating of small samples of carbonized residues from ceramic sherds with good stratigraphic provenience, as well as small paleosol samples

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL)Dating of samples of inorganics, primarily dune sands sandwiching stable organic deposits revealing soil formation, and possibly cultural use

  • Previously Reported Sites Had Information of Variable Quality onAssemblage Composition, Stratigraphy and Formation Processes, Ages and DatingThese Data were Differentially Reported. We Needed to Develop Standard Procedures for Both Known as Well as Newly Investigated Sites

  • Map showing the locations of archaeological sites and dune sampling locales around Lake Michigan. The dashed line indicates the approximate position of the Algonquin and Nipissing hinge line; after Leverett and Taylor (1915). Areas of presumed subsidence and uplift are labeled on either side of the hinge line. (Graphic by G. Monaghan; used with permission)

  • (Graphics by G. Monaghan; used with permission)(Photos by W. Lovis:used with permission)

  • Juntunen Drag and JabOneota Shell TemperedMackinac Punctate(Photos and graphic by W. Lovis; used with permission)

  • The Eastport Site, Antrim County, MI616/187.75m614/187.15m612/186.54m610/185.93m608/185.32mUnit 1/Unit 2CompositeLacustrine SandSpodosolsLeached B/EPaleosolEolian SandArtifact ZoneOSL 5150390 B.P.In Eolian Sand atVillage of Eastport(Graphic by W. Lovis; used with permission)

  • (Photo by W. Lovis; used with prmission)

  • Results of 2007 14C and OSL DatingThe Camp Miniwanca Site, Oceana Co, MI Wood charcoal from hearth in buried paleosol identified by Dr. Frank Telewski as Picea sp., spruce. Tight growth rings reveal a stressed environment. A 14C date of 82040 BP from a hearth with ceramics, chipped stone, and bone cal. BP 730/AD 1220. 20+ Meters!OSL ages87080 BP above

    92080 BP below(Photos by W. Lovis, graphic by G. Monaghan, used with permission)

  • Procedures for GeoProbeTM OSL SamplingStep 1: Once a sample location has been selectedon a larger site, position GeoProbeTM and take visiblesolid core to the appropriate stratigraphic depth. Photo at left is Bill Monaghan coring at Winter site.Step 2: Assess stratigraphywithin the core. Ascertainwhether OSL sample is appro-priate, and from what depthwithin the stratigraphic section.Photo at left is from Winter site. Step 3: Properly record stratigraphy in terms ofstandard criterion such as color, texture, grain size, organic content. Again determine at whatdepth the OSL sample should be taken. Photoat right is at Ekdahl-Goudreau/Seul Choix site. (Photos by W. A. Lovis; used withpermission)

  • Step 4: Repeat the coring proce