The Chinese Anarchist Movement

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    e Anarchist Library

    Anti-Copyright

    October 17, 2011

    1

    Contents

    e Chinese Anarist Movement 3

    Editors Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    e Origins of Chinese Anarism . . . . . 11Chinese Students Sent Abroad . . . . . . . . . 11Influences Upon the Paris Group . . . . . . . 21e New Century and its Message . . . . . . 27Sun and the Paris Anarchists . . . . . . . . . . . 65e Mounting Struggle Against the

    Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80e Chinese Anarchist Movementin Tokyo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Shih-fu and His Movement . . . . . . . . . . . 103Liu Shi-fu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104e Society to Advance Moralityand its Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108Anarchist-Communist emes . . . . . . . . 114

    e Work-Study Movement . . . . . . . . . . 133

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    A New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133Frugal Study in France . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135e Diligent Work-Frugal StudyMovement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141e Decline of the Work-Study

    Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147e Anarist Conflict with Marxism . 157Ou Sheng-pai vs. Chen Tu-hsiu . . . . . . 157

    Editors Footnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

    171

    their losses until they finally ran out of troopsand had to seek refuge in France.

    Retrieved on 15 June 2011 from

    hp://raforum.info/spip.php?article1730

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    e Chinese Communists claimed that peopleare incapable of managing their own affairs with-out despotism while Anarchists in the Ukrainehad established an autonomous area of collec-tivized farming, worker self-management and

    free economic exchange from 19171921, a yearbefore the Chinese Communist diatribes againstAnarchists in Paris!

    e Chinese Communists claimed that peoplecouldnt overthrow tyrants without their leader-ship whenthe Anarchistpartisans had defeatedthe occupying armies ofGermany andAustria-Hungary, aborted a counterrevolution by Ukrain-

    ian Nationalist troops,and defendedtheiraccom-plishments against the aacks of the Russian RedArmy under the command of Leon Trotsky. Trot-sky sent inexperienced troops up againstAnar-chistpartisans who had been engagedin guerillawarfarefor9yearshetoldthemthe guerillaswere merely bandits. e Anarchists were ableto kill seven Red Army soldiers for every one of

    Robert Scalapino

    and George T. Yu

    e Chinese

    Anarist Movement

    1961

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    you to do more and more until you are actually following the Maoist leaders at the expense of youroriginal values, desires, work projects, etc.. Oncethey get you into their movement, they begin theprocess of trying to reeducate you by challeng

    ing your beliefs until you think like they do. Iis a kind of brainwashing similar to that used bysome religious cults.

    e Chinese Communists used the same lies asthe Bolsheviksto aack Anarchism. In1922theywere accusingAnarchists of being primitivistswhile only a few years earlier Anarcho-Syndicalist propaganda had helped instigate worker self

    management in Russia and Anarchist slogans hadbeen parroted by the Bolsheviks. ey claimedthat Chinese people were technologically simplepeople, but the Russians had also been technologically simple people defying Marxs claimthat revolution must happen in industrialized nations where workers are moretechnologicallyadvanced.

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    is tutelage was part of the aractiveness ofthe Work-Study Movement and it was exploitedby Marxist-Leninists who infiltrated the studygroups to spread their doctrine. Maoism turnstutelage on its head through its preceptoral

    method of indoctrination and social control. Pre-ceptoral means a system based on teaching. InMaoism, Mao, the Part, or those in Authority areright and if you dont agree with them there isa contradiction which can only be solved by per-suadingyouto agree withthem. isisthe basisfor theidea ofpolitical reeducationcamps. eobject is to get a person to recant their beliefs

    muchlike whatwas done by the catholic Churchduring the Inquisition.e Maoist method of recruiting uses a simi-

    lar tactic. e person whothe Maoist istryingtorecruit is askedtorecitetheirbeliefs andthen per-suadedthatworkingtowardthe objectives of theMaoist (Communist) Party will fulfill that personsbeliefs and desires. e objective is to persuade

    5

    Editors Note

    Chinese Anarchists were inspired by the ideasof Pierre Proudhon, Michael Bakunin, Peter

    Kropotkin and Elise Reclus. Many were exposedto Anarchist ideas while they were students in Europe and Anarchist books were soon translatedinto Chinese and Esperanto, a popular languageamong Chinese students. ey used the termAnarchist Communist interchangeable with theword Anarchist. e Chinese words for Anarchist-Communist (Wu-Zheng-Fu Gong-Chan) lit

    erally meant Without Government Common Production and in no way implied Bolshevism orMaoism. On the contrary, theirs were the Libertarian Socialist ideas of the First Internationawhich reflected the traditional Chinese Anarchistic teachings of Lao Tzu while Maoism reflectedthe authoritarian bureaucracy of Confucianism.

    Like the word communism, the word col

    lectivism also has a different literal meaning in

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    Chinese than when it is commonly used in Eng-lish. In Chinese, the word for a collective en-terprise (Ji-ti Qi-ye) literally means an assemblyofpeoplein a bureaucracy (atree ofpeople) very different from our understanding of Michael

    Bakunins Collectivism or a workers collective more like Bolshevism or Fabian Socialism e Chinese Anarchist Shih Fu substantiated thistranslation by identifying Karl Marx as the fatherof collectivism in his writings1.

    Historically, Marxism was unable to make in-roads into China until aer the Russian Revolu-tion of 1917whenLeninsfollowers,bankrolled

    by the Bolshevik government,begantheiraacksonAnarchists in Russia and neighboring coun-tries. is book describes some of the early his-toryofChinese Anarchism uptothe period aerthe Bolshevik counter-revolution when Russiabegan to send Marxist-Leninist missionaries like

    1 e Socialism of Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kang-hu, Min

    Sheng, No. 6, April 18, 1914, pp.17

    167

    Editors Footnote

    e authors of this text originally used theword tutelage for what Anarchists refer to as

    vanguardism. In the true sense of the word, tutelage is the practice of educating people to prepare them for revolution and not the practiceof the Marxist-Leninist who advocated enlightened despotism because people were too stupidand lazy to instigate a revolution on their ownis is the elitist language of vanguardists whoclaim that dictatorship can create Socialism while

    throughout history, it has only created tyranny.e authors commentedthat tutelagewas a

    part of Chinese culture, which it is. Chinese philosophical and religious systems (including thosethat were aacked by the Anarchists) are basedon the teachings of people like Lao Tzu and Confucius who were regarded as great scholars bydifferent groups of people. Tutelage was enlight

    enment through education.

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    Ou insisted that most men were stubborn be-cause they had insufficient knowledge, and heprofessed much greater hope in education, bothbefore and aer the revolution than Chen. ifan offender persisted in wrong-doing in an An-

    archist society, Ou asserted, he would be askedto leave; and he insisted that there were no menso shameless as to disregard such a demand fromthe whole society. In answer to Chens remarksabout mass movements and their motivatingforces, Ou asserted that with the progress of sci-ence, the force of emotionalism among mankindwouldrecede.12 Helookedtoward a morerational

    man and a more rational world.

    12 Ibid., p. 119

    7

    Chou En-lai to try to try to infiltrate and take ovethe student movements in Europe. It includessome of the ideological debates which ensuedbetween Chinese Anarchists and their MarxistLeninist adversaries.

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    ey were the fixed instrumentalities of the ruling class. Did laws stop officials from robbingpeople?11

    Anarchism had as its central quest the freedomof every man. Ou, however, distinguished him

    self from the individualist branch ofAnarchismFreedom, as Bakunin had indicated long ago, didnothave meaning without relationto society. Iwas not to be equated with rampant individualism. But freedom in society could be obtainedonly when law had been replaced by free contracts based upon common will. ere was noconflictbetweenfreedom and association,argued

    Ou,becausethe key lay in Kropotkins conceptofree contracts, and in the idea of free federationAnd because each man would be free to join andfree to withdraw, modern society could functionwithout disruption.

    11 Ou Sheng-pais Answer to ChenTu-hsiu, Ibid.,p. 118.Seealso Another Reply of Ou Sheng-pai to Chen Tu-hsiu, op

    cit., pp. 127128.

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    theme with vigor. Anarchism would have manreturn to primitivism. Economically, it wouldtake him back to the era of handicra indus