The body receives a stimulus via a receptor o Cold-extrinsic o Heat-extrinsic o Pain-extrinsic or...

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Transcript of The body receives a stimulus via a receptor o Cold-extrinsic o Heat-extrinsic o Pain-extrinsic or...

  • The body receives a stimulus via a receptor Cold-extrinsicHeat-extrinsicPain-extrinsic or intrinsicAn odor-intrinsicFatigue-intrinsicCan you name any other stimuli?

  • The body tries to respond to the NEGATIVE stimulus. Shiver to keep warmSweat to keep coolMuscles withdraw from painful stimulusYou go to sleep

  • If we get too cold we will____If we get too hot our proteins will______

    Our body is at work all the time to maintain internal homeostasis

  • Example 1: Temperature regulation

    Skin sensory organs sense too warmHypothalamus in brain senses too warmBlood vessels vasodilate or enlarge to get rid of heatSweat glands produce sweat which evaporates to cool the body

  • Temperature Regulation-too coldSkin sensors and hypothalamus sense body temperature too lowHypothalamus sense message to vessels to vasoconstrict so skin might turn blueGoose bumps raise hair to trap air which is a good insulatorMuscles shiver to generate heat

  • Other examples of homeostasis regulation

    CO2 RegulationWater RegulationSugar RegulationHormonal Regulation

    What do they all have in common?


    Receptor(sensory cells; i.e. skin, eyes, etc)Integrator(or Control Center)(brain & nerves & glands in brain)Effector(muscles & glands;i.e. sweat glands)OUTPUT

  • Analogy: Maintaining a comfortable room tempSet Point (what youre trying to maintain) = 74 F

    Control Center (what monitors the variable and comparesit to the set point) = thermostat

    Effector (target of decision made and what responds tochange the variable) = air conditioner

  • Two Kinds of Feedback Systems:Negative feedback

    Positive feedback

  • Negative Feedback System:Where the body works to reverse the direction of the change/disturbance. The body generates responses to fix the disturbance and bring the body back to normal.Like how a thermostat monitors room temp.

  • Examples of Negative Feedback in the body:Maintaining body temperatureMaintaining proper amounts of salt in bloodstreamMaintaining proper amounts of hormones in bloodstream

  • 2) Positive Feedback Systems (Loops):The bodys response to a change is to continue the direction of the change. The initial conditions/ stimulus triggers a chain of events that intensify until something stops the process.

    This type of system has a de-stabilizing effect so it does not initially result in homeostasis (when process is complete, then homeostasis occurs).

  • Examples of Positive Feedback Systems in the body:


    Blood clotting

    Defecating(Positive feedback systems are rare in body;Most systems work using negative feedback)

  • Animations of homeostasisPositive feedbackPositive vs. Negative Feedback

  • Lastly, most diseases are the result of the body notbeing able to maintain or restore homeostasis (known as homeostatic imbalance).