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    1600AD to 1750AD



    Judith Leyster, The Flute Player

    The Baroque Era (16001750) was a time characterized by absolute monarchy in which all art and culture served the ruler

    Bloody religious wars (Protestants vs. Catholics)

    Exploration and colonization of the New World (Mayflower, 1620)

    Both extreme poverty and extreme luxury could be found

    Love of the dramatic

  • THE BAROQUE ERA An Age of Discovery

    Sir Isaac Newton formulated the theory of gravity

    William Harvey explained the circulation of the blood

    Galileo and Copernicus advances in physics and astronomy

  • THE BAROQUE ERA Major Musical Accomplishments

    Monody solo song with instrumental accompaniment

    Figured Bass shorthand notation system allowing musician to improvise the chords

    Major-Minor system established

    Equal Temperament Tuning Established

  • The Baroque Era Musical Key Points

    Florentine Camerata:

    Group of artists, writers, and musicians who helped to develop the monodic style

    Monody: New style featuring single melody with instrumental accompaniment a shift away from the Polyphony of the Renaissance

    Young Woman at a Virgina, Jan Vermeer

  • The Baroque Era Musical Key Points

    The Camerata realized that the monodic style could be applied to an entire drama

    Thus began the OPERA the single greatest achievement of Baroque Music!

    The OPERA

  • The Baroque Era Musical Key Points

    Figured bass composer put a numeral above or below the bass note to indicate the required chord

    This system was known as Basso Continuo - performance group often consisted of two instrumentalistsone playing a melodic bass instrument, such as a cello or bassoon, and another playing a chordal instrument, such as a keyboard.

    Musical Example: C.P.E. Bach, Trio Sonata in G

  • The Baroque Era Musical Key Points

    Major-Minor System Established

    The shift to a simpler style based on a single melody and less complex harmony led to the development of one of the most significant changes in all of music history: the establishment of the Major-Minor Tonality

  • The Baroque Era Musical Key Points

    Equal temperament tuning system established during Baroque that allowed instruments to perform in any key - still used today

    Based on the division of the octave into twelve equal half steps

    Bach wanted to prove he could write in every one of the keys and wrote his Well-Tempered Clavier

  • The Baroque Era Musical Key Points

    In the early Baroque era, the practice of word painting continued. Music was expected to arouse the emotions or affections such as joy, anger, love or fear

    In the height of the Baroque era, the doctrine of the affections was applied that a movement should aim at only one emotion; and to attempt more would risk causing confusion and disorder in the listener.

    Handel: Sampson, Let the Bright Seraphim


  • The Baroque Era The Rise of the Virtuoso Musician

    Technical improvements in instrument making led to the rise in the level of virtuosic playing

    Composers began challenging the performers

    Domenico Scarlatti

    Antonio Vivaldi

    Scarlatti: Sonata in E, Capriccio


    Vivaldi: Concerto for Piccolo

    Antonio Vivaldi


  • The Baroque Era Exoticism

    Age of exploration of the globe introduced

    the public to different elements of remote

    cultures that were previously unknown

    Thus exoticism- a musical style in which

    rhythms, melodies, or instruments evoke

    the atmosphere of far off lands, also

    became a presence in the Baroque era.

    Operas were set in faraway lands and

    contained scenes, costumes and dances

    which appealed to the imagination of the


    Music flowed across national boundaries

  • The Baroque Era THE OPERA

    An Opera is a large-scale musical drama combining:






    Instrumental music Meredith Hall as Poppea in the opera

    The Coronation of Poppea

    The most important new musical genre of the Baroque Era

  • The Baroque Era THE OPERA

    Mozart: Don Giovanni, Chi la?


    Handel: Messiah, O thou that tellest


    Plot and action are moved forward through recitative a vocal technique that resembles the natural patterns of speech. The words in a recitative are often sung on the same pitch, and may include rapid question-and-answer dialogue between characters.

    An aria (Italian for air) is a song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, often of an emotional nature. Often in A-B-A form with a beginning, high point, and end


  • The Baroque Era THE OPERA

    The Role Of The Opera In Baroque Culture:

    Royal Weddings

    Ceremonial Occasions

    Scenic Displays

    Lavish Spectacles

  • English singer, organist, and composer

    Sacred and secular music

    Most famous stage work: Dido and Aeneas

    The Baroque Era Henry Purcell

    Henry Purcell (16591695)

  • The Baroque Era Purcells Dido and Aeneas

    The Death of Dido, Giovanni Barbieri

    Written in 1689 for a girls boarding school where Purcell taught

    Based on an ancient Roman epic that traces the adventures of the hero Aeneas after the fall of Troy

    In summary: Aeneas is shipwrecked at Carthage on the northern shore of Africa. He and the young Carthaginian queen, Dido, fall in love. Aeneas receives a message that he must continue on his journey to found Rome, and so he decides that he must leave. In Didos grief, she decides that her fate is death.

    Didos Lament (Aria):

  • The Baroque Era The Cantata

    Cantata (Italian to sing) - a

    mulitmovement work consisting of arias, recitatives and choruses; with orchestral accompaniment.

    Both Sacred and Secular

    Based on lyric, dramatic, or narrative poetry

    A staple of the Lutheran church service

  • The Baroque Era Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750), German composer, organist, educator

    Culminating figure of the Baroque style and a giant in history of music

    Career in northern Germany

    Born into a musical family

    Known as an organist and composer

    Devout Lutheran

    Employed by both secular and church patrons throughout his career

  • The Baroque Era Johann Sebastian Bach

    An evening outdoor concert in 1744

    by the collegium musicum of Jena, Germany

    Bach directed this group for 27 years

    At the age of thirty-eight, Bach was appointed to one of the most important music positions in Germanycantor at St. Thomass Church

    In 1729, Bach was appointed to an additional post in Leipzig: director of the collegium musicuma group of university students and musicians that gave regular concerts

  • The Baroque Era Johann Sebastian Bach

    Dictionary, J.G. Walther

    Bach Wrote:

    Sacred Vocal Music (200 church cantatas, 4 Passions, Mass in B minor)

    Orchestral Music (4 Suites)

    Concertos (Brandenburg Concertos)

    Solo Sonatas and Keyboard Music (Well-Tempered Clavier, The Art of Fugue, Toccata and Fugue in D minor)

  • The Well-Tempered Clavier

    Instrumental Music:

    Orchestral suites:

    Bach: Flute Sonata No. 2, Siciliano -

    Bach: Concerto for Violin and Oboe, II -

    Bach: Orchestral Suite No. 2, Badinerie -

    Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, III -