THE AXIAL SKELETON & FETAL SKULL Exercise 9. Two Skeletal Divisions Axial skeleton Axial...

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Transcript of THE AXIAL SKELETON & FETAL SKULL Exercise 9. Two Skeletal Divisions Axial skeleton Axial...

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THE AXIAL SKELETON & FETAL SKULL Exercise 9 Slide 2 Slide 3 Two Skeletal Divisions Axial skeleton Axial skeleton Bones around the bodys axis or center of gravity Appendicular skeleton Appendicular skeleton Bones of the limbs or appendages Slide 4 VERY IMPORTANT TABLE Slide 5 THE AXIAL SKELETON Fig. 7-1b Slide 6 Fig. 7-1a Slide 7 SKULL Cranial skeleton Cranial skeleton Cranium, braincase Facial Skeleton Facial Skeleton face Fig. 7-2 Slide 8 Fig. 7-3 Slide 9 TEMPORAL BONE Slide 10 Fig. 7-3 TEMPORAL BONE Slide 11 Fig. 7-3 TEMPORAL BONE Slide 12 Fig. 7-3 TEMPORAL BONE Slide 13 Fig. 7-3 OCCIPITAL BONE HYPOGLOSSAL CANAL IS UNDERNEATH THE CONDYLE Slide 14 Fig. 7-3 SPHENOID BONE Slide 15 Fig. 7-3 SPHENOID BONE Slide 16 Fig. 7-3 SPHENOID BONE Slide 17 Fig. 7-3 ETHMOID BONE OLFACTORY FORAMINA ARE THE HOLES IN THE CRIBIFORM PLATE Slide 18 Fig. 7-3 ETHMOID BONE Slide 19 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.1a External anatomy of the right lateral aspect of the skull. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Zygomatic process Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Lacrimal fossa Slide 20 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.1b External anatomy of the right lateral aspect of the skull. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone Squamous suture Lambdoid suture Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Zygomatic process Frontal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Lacrimal fossa Slide 21 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.2a Inferior view of the skull, mandible removed. Maxilla (palatine process) Palatine bone (horizontal plate) Zygomatic bone Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Vomer Temporal bone (petrous part) Parietal bone Styloid process Mastoid process Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Occipital bone Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Jugular foramen Occipital condyle Foramen magnum Slide 22 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.2b Inferior view of the skull, mandible removed. Mastoid process Zygomatic arch Foramen ovale Carotid canal Styloid process Jugular foramen Occipital condyle Foramen magnum Slide 23 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.3a-b Internal anatomy of the inferior portion of the skull. Cribriform plate Crista galli Ethmoid bone Sphenoid Temporal bone (petrous part) Parietal bone Occipital bone Frontal bone sella turcica Internal acoustic meatus Jugular foramen Foramen magnum Cribriform foramina Optic canal Foramen ovale Hypoglossal canal Slide 24 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.3c Internal anatomy of the inferior portion of the skull. Cribriform plate Crista galli Ethmoid bone Sphenoid Temporal bone (petrous part) Parietal bone Occipital bone sella turcica Foramen magnum Frontal bone Cribriform foramina Optic canal Foramen ovale Jugular foramen Slide 25 Fig. 7-3 SKULL SUTURES Slide 26 Fig. 7-3 SKULL SUTURES Slide 27 Fig. 7-3 SKULL SUTURES Slide 28 Fig. 7-3 SKULL SUTURES Slide 29 Fig. 7-3 SKULL SUTURES Slide 30 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.6b Anatomy of the anterior and posterior aspects of the skull. Parietal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone (mastoid process) Sagittal suture Lambdoid suture Occipitomastoid suture Occipital condyle Slide 31 Fig. 7-2 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL Slide 32 Fig. 7-2 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL LACRIMAL FOSSA = Shallow depression in this bone Slide 33 Fig. 7-3 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL Zygomatic bone = blue Temporal bone = pink Zygomatic ARCH is a segment of each of these bones, your cheekbone is actually partially temporal bone and partially zygomatic boneyour zygomatic arch. Slide 34 Fig. 7-3 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL Inferior nasal conchae (2) are FACIAL bones. You already learned that the middle nasal conchae are part of the ethmoid bone, a CRANIAL bone. Slide 35 Fig. 7-3, 4 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL The VOMER is the inferior portion of your nasal septum. Slide 36 Fig. 7-3 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL PALATINE BONE: posterior 1/3 of roof of mouth Slide 37 Fig. 7-2 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL 2 MAXILLARY BONES: upper jaw Slide 38 Fig. 7-2 FACIAL BONES OF THE SKULL MANDIBLE (1): lower jaw Slide 39 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.6c Anatomy of the anterior and posterior aspects of the skull. Parietal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Frontal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bones Mandible Slide 40 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.7 Detailed anatomy of the mandible and maxilla. Maxilla, right lateral viewMandible, right lateral view Slide 41 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.8 Bones that form the orbit. Roof of orbit Lateral wall of orbit Medial wall Floor of orbit Superior orbital fissure Optic canal Inferior orbital fissure Zygomatic bone Nasal bone sphenoid bone frontal bone sphenoid bone zygomatic bone ethmoid bone maxilla Lacrimal bone palatine bone maxillary bone Zygomatic bone Slide 42 Fig. 7-12 Hyoid bone Not really a skull bone Doesnt articulate with any other boneunique! Slide 43 Fig. 7-16 Vertebral Column Cervical: C1-C7 Atlas = C1 Axis = C2 Slide 44 Fig. 7-19 Cervical Vertebrae Atlas = C1 no body Axis = C2 All cervicals have holes in the sides Slide 45 Fig. 7-20 Thoracic Vertebrae T1-T12 All thoracics have facets on the sides where ribs attach Fig. 7-20 Slide 46 Fig. 7-21 Lumbar Vertebrae L1-L5 All lumbars have large bodies Slide 47 Fig. 7-22 Sacrum & Coccyx 5 fused vertebrae Know posterior/anterior 4 fused vertebrae Slide 48 Intervertebral Discs Inter = in between What type of cartilage? Fig. 7-18 Slide 49 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 9.1 Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae Slide 50 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.11 The vertebral column. C 7 (vertebra prominens) C1C1 Cervical curvature (concave) 7 vertebrae, C 1 C 7 Spinous process Transverse processes Thoracic curvature (convex) 12 vertebrae, T 1 T 12 Intervertebral discs Intervertebral foramen Lumbar curvature (concave) 5 vertebrae, L 1 L 5 T1T1 L1L1 Sacral curvature (convex) Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae 2 3 4 5 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 2 3 4 5 3 2 7 6 4 5 Anterior viewRight lateral view Slide 51 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.12 Abnormal spinal curvatures ScoliosisKyphosisLordosis Slide 52 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.13 A typical vertebra, superior view. Slide 53 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.14 The first and second cervical vertebrae. Superior view of atlas (C 1 ) Inferior view of atlas (C 1 ) Superior view of axis (C 2 ) Posterior Slide 54 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.15 Superior and right lateral views of typical vertebrae. C1C1 C2C2 Superior ViewRight Lateral View Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Slide 55 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.16 Sacrum and coccyx. Anterior view Posterior view Coccyx Slide 56 Bony Thorax Fig. 7-23 STERNUM Slide 57 Bony Thorax Fig. 7-23 TRUE RIBS (1-7) FALSE RIBS (8-12) FALSE RIBS : FLOATING RIBS (11-12) Slide 58 Bony Thorax Fig. 7-23 COSTAL CARTILAGE NOT COASTAL Slide 59 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.17 The thoracic cage. Manubrium Heart Costal cartilage Body L 1 Vertebra Floating ribs (11, 12) False ribs (812) True ribs (17) Xiphoid process Sternum T2T2 T3T3 T4T4 T5T5 T9T9 Slide 60 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.18 Structure of a typical true rib and its articulations. Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Slide 61 The Fetal Skeleton Slide 62 Slide 63 Fontanels: indentations between bones of fetal skull (fibrous membranes), which ossify as the child ages (20-22 months) Slide 64 Slide 65 http://wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/HumanSkeleton.gif Face: cranium Head:body Ossification centers Frontal bone Vertebrae Sternum Patellae Coxal Rib cage Carpals tarsals Slide 66 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.19 Skull of a newborn. Posterior fontanelle Ossification center Frontal bone Occipital bone Parietal bone Frontal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone (squamous part) Left lateral view Superior view Left lateral view Anterior view Anterior fontanelle Frontal suture Anterior Sphenoidal fontanelle Ossification center Posterior fontanelle Mastoid fontanelle Anterior fontanelle Frontal suture Sphenoidal fontanelle Maxilla Mandible Anterior fontanelle Sphenoidal fontanelle Mastoid fontanelle Parietal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone (squamous part) Frontal bone Parietal bone Slide 67 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.19a Skull of a newborn. Posterior fontanelle Ossification center Frontal bone Occipital bone Parietal bone Superior view Anterior fontanelle Frontal suture Anterior Slide 68 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.19b Skull of a newborn. Frontal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone (squamous part) Left lateral view Sphenoidal fontanelle Ossification center Posterior fontanelle Mastoid fontanelle Slide 69 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.19c Skull of a newborn. Anterior view Anterior fontanelle Frontal suture Sphenoidal fontanelle Maxilla Mandible Frontal bone Parietal bone Slide 70 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.19d Skull of a newborn. Left lateral view Anterior fontanelle Sphenoidal fontanelle Mastoid fontanelle Parietal bone Occipital bone Temporal bone (squamous part) Frontal bone Slide 71 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Figure 9.1 Slide 72 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Figure 9.2 Slide 73 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Figure 9.3 (curvature) Slide 74 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Figure 9.4 L 1 vertebra Slide 75 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Review Figure 9.5