The Appendicular Skeleton

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The Appendicular Skeleton. Composed of 126 bones Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle. The Appendicular Skeleton. acromion. Figure 5.6a. The Appendicular Skeleton. Figure 5.6b. The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle. Composed of two bones - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Appendicular Skeleton

The Appendicular SkeletonComposed of 126 bonesLimbs (appendages)Pectoral girdlePelvic girdleThe Appendicular SkeletonFigure 5.6a

acromionThe Appendicular SkeletonFigure 5.6b

The Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleComposed of two bonesClaviclecollarbone slender bone; at risk to fractureScapulashoulder bladeThese bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movementThe clavicle serves as a brace to hold the arm away from the top of the thoraxso there is no problem with the arm clearing the wides dimension of the thoracic cage.Bones of the Shoulder GirdleFigure 5.21a

Coracoid processgreater tubercleBones of the Shoulder GirdleFigure 5.21b

CLAVICLE (#2)Bones of the Shoulder GirdleFigure 5.21cd

****SCAPULA (#1)Bones of the Upper LimbsHumerusForms the armSingle bone

Bones of the Upper LimbsFigure 5.22ab

*******Humerus (#3)*Bones of the Upper LimbsThe forearm has two bonesUlnaMedial bone in anatomical positionRadius Lateral bone in anatomical positionBones of the Upper LimbsFigure 5.22c

Radius (#4) & Ulna (#5)****Bones of the Upper LimbsThe handCarpalswrist 8 bonesMetacarpalspalmPhalangesfingers 14 bonesBones of the Upper LimbsFigure 5.23

Carpal (#6), Metacarpals (#7), Phalanges (#8)Bones of the Pelvic GirdleFormed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bonesComposed of three pairs of fused bonesIliumIschiumPubis

Pectoral Girdle is more flexiblePelvic Girdle is more secure and better able to bear weightBones of the Pelvic GirdleThe total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvistherefore, must be massiveIt protects several organsReproductive organsUrinary bladderPart of the large intestinePeople instinctively curl over to protect internal organsThe PelvisFigure 5.24a

More massive than 4 legged creatures because it has to bear more weight.The Pelvis: Right Coxal BoneFigure 5.24b

**********Illium = yellow bone #1Ischium = Purple bone #2Pubis = Red bone #3Gender Differences of the PelvisThe female inlet is larger and more circularThe female pelvis as a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinnerThe female ilia flare more laterallyThe female sacrum is shorter and less curvedThe female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus the outlet is largerThe female pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greaterGender Differences of the PelvisFigure 5.24c

True vs false pelvisThe greater or FALSE pelvis is located above the pelvic brim- SUPERIOR; supports the abdominal viscera the organs contained within the abdominal cavity; they include the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and parts of the urinary and reproductive tracts The lesser or TRUE pelvis below the brim- INFERIOR; limits delivery of babyBones of the Lower LimbsThe thigh has one boneFemur The heaviest, strongest bone in the bodyBones of the Lower Limbs Femur #4Figure 5.25ab

**********Anterior view of right femurPosterior view of right femurPatella # 5Bones of the Lower LimbsThe lower leg has two bonesTibiaShinboneLarger and medially orientedFibulaThin and sticklikeBones of the Lower LimbsFigure 5.25c

Fibula #6Tibia #7*****Bones of the Lower LimbsThe footTarsals Two largest tarsalsCalcaneus (heelbone)TalusMetatarsalssolePhalangestoesBones of the Lower LimbFigure 5.26

Talus #8Calcaneus #9Metatarsals #10Phalanges #11Arches of the FootBones of the foot are arranged to form three strong archesTwo longitudinalOne transverseArches of the FootFigure 5.27

Fallen Arches

The ligament and tendons are weakend, allowing bones to fall