The Age of Mass Politics

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The Age of Mass Politics. 1815-1915. Overview. 1815-1848 Conservatism Liberalism Nationalism The Revolutions of 1848 The Age of RealPolitik (1848-1871) The Rise of Socialism The Age of Mass Politics (1871-1915). Conservatism. Protection of the status quo The Concert of Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Age of Mass Politics1815-1915

  • Overview1815-1848ConservatismLiberalismNationalismThe Revolutions of 1848The Age of RealPolitik (1848-1871)The Rise of SocialismThe Age of Mass Politics (1871-1915)

  • ConservatismProtection of the status quoThe Concert of EuropeThey were all singing the same tuneFirst meeting in Vienna 1814To settle the questions of territory and politics after NapoleonFrance, England, Austria, RussiaTerritorial changes that reflected the personal interests of the leaders involvedOther meetings1818 The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle1819 Protocol of Troppau1822 Congress of VeronaRebellions in the AmericasEurope lost controlThe Monroe DoctrineNo more meetings after 1822Failed as an international force

  • ConservatismRussia1825 Alexander I dies suddenlyYoung liberal thinkers hoped to see Constantine take the throneInstead Nicholas I became TsarDecembrist Revolt

  • ConservatismFrance (1815-1830)P.M. Talleyrand suggested Louis XVIIIOld and in poor health; he was unexciting, safe, and legitimateSigned the Charter Maintained principles from the revolutionEquality before the lawReligious freedom (Catholicism is state religion)The Napoleonic CodeOrganization of the county by departmentsAnd property rights from the revolution and Napoleonic periodsOnly large property owners could voteElected a two-house AssemblyFrance was returned to 1792 borders

  • ConservatismFrance (1815-1830)1815: white terrorNapoleon returns for 100 daysLouis flees and returns after Napoleons final defeatReaction continuedCatholic attacks on Protestants1820: Louis nephew was assassinatedMore repressionCharles XSpokesperson for the conservative aristocracyReduced interest on public debtHurt the middle class who had loaned money to the stateRumors that he planned to rescind constitutional limits on his authorityAppointed a conservative chief ministerJuly Revolution of 1830

  • ConservatismGerman States (1815-1830)The German ConfederationGerman nationalism dominated universities and artistic leadersStudents formed clubs collectively called BurschenschaftAustria is leading German StateMetternich suspicious; wants to prevent German unityActions of the Burschenschaft were very limited; occasional demonstrations or marches; mostly they wrote1819 a member of the Burschenschaft murdered and extremely conservative public figureCarlsbad DecreesOutlawed the BurschenschaftApplied censorship throughout the German statesUniversity students and professors would be watchedTeachers were blacklisted

  • ConservatismAustriaMetternichExcept for Russia, the Austrian Empire was the most populous European stateAustria, Bohemia, and Hungary each had own languageOther minority languages: Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Slovakian and othersControlled parts of Northern Italy; Vienna is the Capital of the Austrian EmpireIdea of government was of a benevolent ruling house, the Habsburgs, who had no special connection to the people it ruledMetternich remains in control until 1848

  • ConservatismEngland (1815-1832)Grain ControversyCorn LawsHurt consumers (kept bread prices high)Hurt manufacturers (kept wages high) After 1815 again possible to import grainNew legislation forbade imports unless prices skyrocketed

  • ConservatismEngland (1815-1832)Bad economic times for laborers; high unemployment1819 the Peterloo MassacrePeaceful demonstrationLocal authorities overreactedKilled 11 and wounded about 400New laws passed restricting public meetingsRepresentation in ParliamentNo changes in electoral districts since before the Industrial Revolutionvirtually representedRotten boroughsPocket boroughsOnly 1 out of every 15 males could voteReform Bill of 1832

  • LiberalismCharacteristicsProduct of the EnlightenmentLiberal-minded people, members of upper middle class, often professionalsBelieved in constitutions and representative governmentProtection of human rights (freedom of expression and religion and equality before the law)

  • LiberalismCharacteristicsNot democratsDid not trust the massesDid not favor universal male suffrageStrongly opposed to revolutionDid not promote voting rights for womenPreferred laissez-faire economics and disapproved of unionsGovernment should stay out of business except to protect private property and maintain an atmosphere conducive to manufacturing and trade

  • LiberalismCharacteristicsSecular world viewRejected church teachingsDistrust of the militaryChange should come through legislationTrusted science and education, human improvement and progress

  • LiberalismEnglandReform Bill of 1832Doubled the number of men who could voteDid eliminate some smaller boroughs and seats reallocated to the new industrial centers1838 Anti-Corn Law League1845 Irish Potato famineTory Prime Minister Robert PeelBelieved that without reform there would be rebellionReform led to Peel fall from officeIrish peasants did not really benefit from reform because of British landlordsCrop failures in 1848 and 1851 resulted in mass Irish migration (mostly to U.S.)Repeal did prove the ability of the British govt to compromiseAlso committed England to international economic system depending on foreign trade

  • LiberalismFrance: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848Charles X dismisses Chamber of Deputies and calls for new electionsLiberals wonCharles issues four July OrdinancesFirst dissolved the newly elected Chamber before it metSecond censored the pressThird greatly reduced the franchise that excluded upper middle classFourth called for new elections based on the revised franchiseMobs took to the street setting up barricades and flying the tricolor flag of the revolutionKings soldiers were targets and refused to support the kingCharles abdicated and fled to England

  • LiberalismFrance: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 July MonarchyOn recommendation of Marquis de Lafayette, France replaced Charles with his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of OrleansCareful to play down royal imageDressed in a business suit and carried an umbrellaRuled for 18 years until 1848Louis was conservative even though the government maintained an appearance of liberalismWanted support of upper bourgeoisie, catered to themReformers and democrats were disappointed1840: Egypt incidentFrench workers demanded voting rights

  • LiberalismFrance: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 February 1848Workers rally: electoral reformPremier Francois Guizot forbid the rallyPeople still gathered and the army refused to disperse the crowdKing dismissed Guizot, but army still fired on the crowd killing about 40 peopleStreet fighting resultedLouis Philippe abdicatedChamber of Deputies sets up provisional governmentMade up of republicans and one socialist: Louis Blanc

  • LiberalismFrance: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 Actions of the provisional govtUniversal male suffrageEnd of slavery in the coloniesAbolition of the death penaltyCountry divided politicallyOrleanistsLegitimistsLouis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of NapoleonRepublicans also dividedSocialists: followers of Louis Blanc demanded govt help to provide jobs

  • LiberalismFrance: Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 Provisional GovernmentOpened National workshopsAgreed to 10-hour workdayHeld elections in April 1848Conservatives were big winnersRural peasant vote: anti-liberal, anti-workshops, and anti-taxesViolence escalatedProvisional govt closed workshopsBloody June DaysGeneral CavaignacProvisional government drafts new constitutionPresidential elections scheduled before it was finishedLouis Napoleon Bonaparte won by huge majority

  • NationalismGreeceMovement led by Ypsilanti in 1821 failedWestern romantic writers took up the causeTurks continued to alienate the WestIsland massacreExecuted the Christian leader of ConstantinopleTreaty of London 1827England, France, and Russia support Greek independenceThreatened Turkey with military actionSent a naval forced that destroyed the Turkish fleetGreek independence in 1832

  • NationalismBelgiumKingdom of the NetherlandsConstitutional monarchy, ruled by House of Orange (same as England)Economically successfulUnpopular politicallyDutch king was absolutist, Belgians were virtually independentBelgians were Catholic; Dutch were CalvinistsBelgians spoke French or Flemish; resented being forced to use Dutch as official language

  • NationalismBelgium1830 Belgian leaders asked for self-governmentDutch response militant, but eventually withdrewBelgium proclaimed independence and began to draft constitutionBelgium became a perpetually neutral countryDefended by Britain and FranceConstitutional monarchy, two-house parliament elected by 1 out of every 30 males

  • NationalismGermany: Philosophies and Revolution Ideas of the Philosophy of the History of MankindJ.G. HerderGerman ways are different from othersVolkgeist: spirit of the peopleRomantic ideaEmphasized genius and intuition over reasonStressed differences rather than similaritiesGerman customs and traditions must be kept pureOpposite of Enlightenment ideas; certain truths are universal

  • NationalismGermany: Philosophies and RevolutionOther German writers urged unity based on language, history, and folk traditionsThe Brothers GrimmG.W.F. HegelReality is a process of endless change; dialecticTendency of the human mind to proceed through reaction of oppositesThesis, antithesis, synthesisLeopold von RankeMission to create a purely German stateFriedrich ListFor a nation to develop its own culture it must have cities, factories, and capital of its own; tariffs to protect new industries

  • Nationalism

  • NationalismGermany: Philosophies and RevolutionBerlin AssemblyDifferent from Frankfurt AssemblyAll Prussian affairLiberalWeakness of the Frankfurt AssemblyNo aspect of national unityProfessional people: lawyers