The Age of Exploration – 16 th Century Ch. 14 Economic Expansion and New Politics

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Transcript of The Age of Exploration – 16 th Century Ch. 14 Economic Expansion and New Politics

  • The Age of Exploration 16th CenturyCh. 14 Economic Expansion and New Politics

  • Demographic, Economic, and Political Changes (late 15th C. 16th C.)Europes population rose by ~50% between 1470-1620Life expectancy: men 27 years; women 25 yearsMovement of people from country into towns and cities as economy expandsCountryside: Manorial lords top of hierarchy; peasants largest % (many owned land)Towns: merchants (bourgeoisie) wealthiest and most powerful; artisans skilled craftsmen; laborers low skilled jobsIncrease in food pricesFirst enclosures in EnglandGrowth of commercial trade; increase in taxes and royal revenuesExpansion of the guild systemGrowth of modern banking contributing factor to rise of market economies and capitalism: First in Italian city-states (Florentine Medici Family 14th-15th centuries) Fuggars financed monarchs (especially Hapsburgs) and merchants 16th -18th centuriesSlow and steady inflationPopulation growth led to growth of marketsInflux of Spanish silver from the New World (financed merchants, who financed war, and trade)Increase circular flow of money and rise in investments

  • Expansion at Home: The Commercial RevolutionCauses:Population growthPrice revolutionRise in capitalism led by bourgeoisieFeatures:BankingHanseatic LeagueChartered companiesJoint-stock companiesStock marketsEnclosuresputting-out industry in textilesNew industriesNew consumer goodsmercantilism

  • The Commercial RevolutionSignificance:Transforms Europe from rural and isolated to developed society and emerging towns/citiesEmergence powerful nation-statesBrought about age of explorationThe price revolutionRise of powerful and wealthy bourgeoisieIncreased standard of living

  • Powerpoint: Economic Impact New World

  • Fall of Constantinople 1453Led to: Age of ExplorationLast Byzantine Emperor: Constantine XI (1449-1453)Conquered by Ottoman Turks, Sultan Mehmet II (1434-1481)Dome of Hagia Sophia glowed red sign from Allah; a crescent moon and star shown in the sky on the day the greatest Christian city became Muslim

  • Age of ExplorationThe fall of Greek Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 permanently and profoundly changed international affairsWealthy Europeans demanded luxury goods from Asia: spices, opiates, and silksGetting the goods past the Turks cost more money, raising the price of commodities dramatically

  • The Atlantic FivePortugalSpainEnglandFrance The Netherlands

  • PortugalMotives: economic + religiousPrince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)Financed expeditions along African coast (gold)Shipping route to IndiaSchoolBartholomew Diaz (1450-1500)Vasco de Gama (1469-1525)Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512)BRAZIL17th century: African slaves imported for coffee, cotton, and SUGAR productionSignificant racial mixingPortuguese map by Lopo Homem (c. 1519) showing the coast of Brazil and natives extracting brazilwood, as well as Portuguese ships.

  • TechnologyCartographyAstronomyInstruments:Magnetic compassGeometric quadrantMariners astrolabeCross staffShips:Caravels (Portugal)Lateen sail and rope riggingsAxial rudderGunpowder and cannons

  • Portuguese discoveries and explorations: first arrival places and dates; main Portuguese spice trade routes in the Indian Ocean (blue); territories claimed during King John III rule (c. 1536) (green)

  • Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494

  • Christopher ColumbusProposed a trade route to Asia by going west thus bypassing TurksFerdinand and Isabella financed expedition along with Genoese merchants

  • The New World UncoveredColumbus lands in the Bahamas after nearly 6 weeks at sea, naming it San Salvadorlos indios people of the Indies natural men naked people without political institutions now (lucky!) Spanish subjectsClothes were how Europeans judged level of civilizationHalf natives of Americas died from European diseases, others mutilated, shot, worked to death in mines, or enslavedSmallpox biggest killer, but Europeans also brought measles, plague, flu and typhusSyphilis was the most significant disease transmitted to Europeans from Amerindians, and affected thousands in Europe4 expeditions charted most of Caribbean islands and HondurasUshered in era of European exploration and domination of New World

  • Spanish Empire in the New World: Age of the ConquistadorConquered entire regions and subjugated their populationsEmpire divided into 4 viceroyaltiesMercantilist positionColonies existed to enrich mother countryMining gold and silver priority (accounted for 25% royal revenues)

  • Bartholomew de las Casas (1474-1566)A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1542)Criticized treatment of Amerindians

  • The Columbian ExchangeDietRevolution in European diet with importation of new plantsPotato (S. America) became most important new staple crop in EuropeOthers: maize, pineapples, tomatoes, beans, vanilla, and chocolatePlants: old world to new world wheat, sugar, rice and coffeeBy 1600 being cultivated in the New WorldLivestock: cows, pigs, sheep, chickens brought to New WorldPrior to this no domestic animals larger than alpaca or llama so little protein in diet

    AnimalsIntroduction of the horse profoundly impacted AmerindiansPlains Indians (N. America)Turkey: most important meat source from New World to OldSlaveryHuge aspect of Columbian ExchangeGold and SilverInflux of wealth to Spanish Empire

  • England: late to explorationJohn Cabot (1425-1500)Jamestown 1607Far more English came to NW comparatively

    FranceJacques Cartier (1491-1557)Quebec 1608

    Dutch Republic (Netherlands)Dutch E. India Co. founded 1602Expelled Portuguese from Ceylon and Indonesia (Spice Islands)

  • PowerPoint: Age of Exploration Remastered

  • New Monarchs: c. 1460-1550Consolidated power and created the foundation for Europes first modern nation-states in FRANCE, ENGLAND, and SPAINUsed Roman law but declared themselves sovereign and thus could make own lawsEastern European monarchs weaker Absolutism doesnt emerge until 17th centuryStill not fully formed nation-states Identity still local or regionalModern nationalism emerges late 18th-early 19th centuries

  • CharacteristicsReduction of nobles power through taxation, confiscation of lands, and use of mercenary armies or standing armiesGunpowder: increased vulnerability of noble armiesMany nobles who supported king gained titles and offices in royal courtIncreased political influence of bourgeoisie, who brought in more revenues (more in France)Nobles resented decline in powerReduction of political power of clergyClergy saw pope as leader, not monarchCreated more efficient bureaucraciesIncreased public debt by taking out loans from merchant-bankers

  • United Spain: Ferdinand & IsabellaUnited Aragon and Castile houses with marriageReconquista, 1492:Goal to remove the last of the Moors and the Jews to Christianize SpainDefeated Moors (N. African Muslims) at Battle of Granada, ending 700 years of ReconquistaExpelled Jews (100,000-150,000)Convert, leave, or dieLoss of Jews and Moors resulted in significant decline of Spanish middle-class

  • Spanish Inquisition1478 set up to ensure unity of faith in the realm (abolished in 1834)Could look into anyone or anything for any reasonAnswered to monarchs, not RomeTomas de Torquemada, Dominican monk, Grand Inquisitor (1483-1498) Burned close to 2,000 people during tenureTargeted heretics and conversos: Jews suspected of false conversions Jews fled to North Africa, eastern Europe, England (despite a ban), the Netherlands, Italy, and Portugal (massacred in 1506)Ireland only European country that never expelled Jews, nor subjected them to pogroms, nor put in ghettos (Cahill).

  • FranceHouse of ValoisLouis XI (1461-83)Created large standing armyCharles VIII (1483-98)Rivalry with Hapsburgs over ItalyExpensive wars: Borrowed $Sold officesLouis XII (1498-1515)Expanded selling officesFrancis I (1515-47)Concordat of Bologna (1516)TailleHenry II (1547-59)Defeated in Italy

  • The Holy Roman Empire: Hapsburg EmpireHRE made up of about 300 semi-autonomous German statesCenter of Hapsburg power in ViennaNOT a New MonarchyNo centralized control, no power to tax or raise armiesMaximilian I (r. 1493-1519)Sparked struggle between Valois and Hapsburgs

  • Charles V (r. 1519-1556) most powerful in 16th century

    Controlled Austrian Hapsburg lands while ruling Spanish EmpireSacked Rome in 1527, thus symbolically ending the Renaissance Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) over control of Burgundy and territories in ItalySought to prevent Protestantism in GermanyPortrait by Titian 1548

  • The Splintered States: Italy and eastern EuropeThe Ottoman EmpireSuleiman the Magnificent (r. 1494-1566)Militarily invincible for decades in wars in Mediterranean and BalkansOccupied Serbia, Hungary, Transylvania, parts of N. Africa, Arabia and western PersiaBattle of Belgrade (1528) Serbian army slaughtered Siege of Buda (1528)Defeated at Gates of Vienna (1529) by Hapsburgs1683 beginning of declineThe Italian Wars, 1494-15595 major city-states (Naples, Papal States, Milan, Florence, Venice) ended decades of balance of powerFrench, Spanish, Hapsburg armies invadedBy 1559 Hapsburgs controlled most of ItalyVenice and Tuscany under MediciPapal States independent

  • Machiavelli (1469-1527): The Prince 1517Florentine diplomat and political theorist banished in 1513The Prince exalts tyranny and amorality of rulers statecraft based on realistic view of corrupt human naturePolitics has its own morality ruler does what is necessary for good of stateEfficiency, practicality, and stability are most important goals of rulerDemocracy inefficient; monarchy is bestthe ends justifies the means

  • PowerPoint: Centr