The Achaemenid Empire

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The Achaemenid Empire. Ch. 4 (pp. 107 – 116) Key Concept 2.2 The Development of States and Empires Essential Question: How did the Persian Empire rise from its Iranian homeland and succeed in controlling vast territories and diverse cultures?. Introduction. Key Concept 2.2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid EmpireCh. 4 (pp. 107 116)

Key Concept 2.2 The Development of States and Empires

Essential Question: How did the Persian Empire rise from its Iranian homeland and succeed in controlling vast territories and diverse cultures?

IntroductionKey Concept 2.2Part 1: During the period 600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E., the number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing statesEx. Achaemenids (Persians) of Iran, Greeks & Romans, Qin & Han Dynasties of China, etc.The Rise of the Persian EmpireThe Achaemenid Empire was founded by CyrusSon of a strong Persian chieftainUnited small Persian states under a single monarchConquered majority of Assyrian territory in MesopotamiaProceeded by son who conquered Egypt

The Rise of the Persian EmpireAchaemenids maintained military power over large areas using:Supply lines to major citiesBuilt forts along trade routesKing gave land to supporters in return for military service

Persian Interaction with the EnvironmentAchaemenids developed new irrigation techniques to deal with support the spread of incoming crops from South Asia and the Middle EastEx. The Qanat SystemCombination of wells and gently sloping underground canals

Dariuss Imperial OrganizationDarius IThird ruler of Persian EmpireClaimed to have the divine support of AhuramazdaExtended empire East to Indus RiverLargest empire the world had seenRuled over subjects by creating new administrative institutions

Dariuss Imperial OrganizationPersian political systemCentralized government w/ a large bureaucracyEmpire divided into 20 provinces, each supervised by satrapsGovernors responsible for collecting taxes & sending tribute to the kingConnected by a well-maintained series of royal roadsIssued currency (gold coins)

Persian Urban CentersCities served as centers of trade & public performance of religious ritualsEx. ElamServed as political center of empireEx. PersepolisBuilt by Darius I for special Persian ceremoniesAdvertised wealth & power of Persians

Achaemenid CultureSocial hierarchy included:Laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, etc.Patriarchal

The Fall of the AchaemenidsAchaemenid Empire began to decline after Xerxes (son of Darius) failed to conquer GreecePersian WarsPersians would later face a much larger threat posed by Alexander the Great