The 3D-NTT C. Balkowski GEPI, Observatoire de Paris Lijiang, november 2010
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Transcript of The 3D-NTT C. Balkowski GEPI, Observatoire de Paris Lijiang, november 2010
C. Balkowski GEPI, Observatoire de Paris Lijiang, november 2010
The 3D-NTT is a collaboration between LAM ( Marseille), GEPI (Paris) and LAE (Montral)Constructing Team P. Amram, P. Balard, C. Balkowski, O. Boissin, J. Boulesteix, C. Carignan, O. Daigle, M-M. de Denus, B. Epinat, J-L. Gach, O. Hernandez, F. RigaudPrivate companies SESO, Fogale, Cedrat, Immervision, Photon-etc, BMV OpticalScience Team P.Amram, A. Boselli, V. Buat, J-G Cuby (LAM) C. Carignan, O. Hernandez (LAE), C. Balkowski, M. Lehnert, S. Mei, T. van Driel (GEPI), J. Bland-Hawthorn (AAO), J. Cepa (IAC), R. Corradi (ING), R. Dettmar, D. Bomans (Bochum), P.A. Duc (CEA), G. stlin (Stockholm), R. Rampazzo (Padova), L. Verdes Montenegro (Granada), W. Zeilinger (Wien)
1D 2D 3D Spectroscopy1D : I(l) 2D : I(l,x) 3D : I(l,x,y)
1D 2D 3D (3D) 194019702020199020501900100 mor moon25 m ?8-10 m 5 m2.5 m1 mdatesdiametr of tlescopesPoint source Spectroscopy(essentially stellar)Long slit Spectroscopy(nebular and galactic)Integral field SpectroscopyMulti-objects SpectroscopyMulti-objects & Multi-IF Spectroscopy3D2D
Objective Prism then objective- grism3D
Some history about the Fabry-Perot interferometer2 semi-reflecting plates of glass, parallel, producing an interference pattern(Fabry and Perot, Marseille, 1892)
Dynamics from 3D spectroscopyNearby galaxies:HI, Halpha, CO VLA, 4m IFU, Fabry-Perot
Distant galaxies:Ionized gas- VLT, IFUFUTURE:- ELT- SKAVelocity field
14/05/2009 - ThinkShop
- Epinat et al. 2008, 2009Dwarfs, IrregularsBlue compactLocal reference sample GHASP (Gassendi Ha survey of SPirals)Environment/ Galaxy densityEarly-typeGaseous DiskIntermediateBarred & non-Barred Galaxies HSB & LSBMass LuminosityFieldPairsCompact Groups GroupsLate-type GHASP 203 nearby galaxies -15
Simulation of high-z galaxies from GHASP data 153 GHASP galaxies projected at z=1.7 Lowest angular size: 8.5 kpc/" Seeing: 0.5" Pixel size: 0.125" No noise added How do galaxies form? Are distant rotating disks well classified? What are the biases?
Rotating disk misclassified Asymmetry in the H distribution
Close pairs seen as RD?
Classification of the kinematics of distant galaxies~70% of regular GHASP rotating disks are classified correctly
Results Comparison of high-z data with projected local dataPossible to disentangle distance effect from evolutionary effects70% of the high redshift rotating disks well classifiedHigh-z disks show higher velocity dispersion than local galaxiesSign of dynamical evolution with z
Need to check the spectral resolution effects on the data (R=15000-> R=3000)
3D-NTTOn the sky at the ESO NTT in 2012 as a visitor instrumentCollaboration between LAM (Marseille), GEPI (PARIS) and LAE (Montral)PI M. Marcelin
Design of the 3D-NTT
NTT derotatorThe 3D-NTT is a visitor instrument to be put at the Nasmyth focus of the NTT
Opticsdesigned and made at LAE Montral)
Mechanics- Most made at GEPI (Ple Instrumental) - Some parts (e.g. filter wheels) made at LAE workshop - Supports of CCD and cryostats made at LAM workshop - Main structure made by a private company
The detectors L3CCD for high resolution mode (O. Daigle, LAE)Chip purchased. Controler being made.
4k x 4k blue sensitive CCD for low resolution mode (J-L. Gach, LAM)Chip purchased
The Fabry-Perot interferometersMechanics made at GEPI Two sets of plates made by SESOPiezo-actuators and positioning capacitors purchased
Double Fabry-Perot Integral Field SpectrometerSame device Tunable Filter Scanning Fabry-PerotDevelop our own coatingsDevelop our own controller to replace the CS100-type controllerWhat is new with our Tunable Filter ?Long excursion piezo-actuators (200 m) Cover of a wide range of interference orders
Coating and controler of the interferometers Coating characteristics computed Deposits in progress Controler developed at LAM
Tunable Source for the calibrationManufactured by Photon-etc it will provide an absolute wavelength calibrationNarrow line tunable over a wide spectral range (0.4 nm over 400 to 1000 nm or 0.1 nm over 600 to 1000 nm).
The two modes of the 3D-NTTTUNABLE FILTER MODE (R ~ 500 1000) monochromatic images
Field of view ~ 17' x 17 Wavelength range350nm to 850nm Spectral resolution : tunable from 300 to 6 000 (@Ha) Detector CCD (4096 x 4096 with 12 m pixels) scale: ~ 0.25"/pixel
HIGH RESOLUTION MODE (R ~ 10 000 20 000)Velocity fields
Field of view ~ 8.5' x 8.5' Wavelength range350nm to 850nm Spectral resolution : from 10 000 to 40 000 (@ Ha) Detector :L3CCD (1600 x 1600 with 16m pixels) scale: ~ 0.33"/pix
What is the principle of the Tunable Filter ?It is a Fabry-Perot interferometer in which the plates are so close to one another (a few microns) that you do not see anymore interference rings through it when looking at a monochromatic source but a spot (Jacquinot spot)
Changing the spacing between the plates then enables to tune the transmitted wavelength, it can be used as a filter for the Fabry Perot at HR
High resolution mode observations
Low resolution mode observations
Example of images produced by a Tunable Filter
NGC1365 observed with the TTF on the AAT for measuring abundances from line-ratios(Veilleux et al. 2003)
Ha[NII] / Ha[NII] Red continuum
Two large programmes Characterizing the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies with 2D maps of extinction and abundances
Gas Accretion & Radiative Feedback in the Early Universe
Large Programme GalaxiesObservation of the ionized gas in SINGS galaxies with the Tunable Filter to map : star formation dust extinction and metal abundance (from line ratios maps) observed lines : [OII] 372.7 nmH beta 486.1 nm[OIII] 495.9 - 500.7 nm[NII] 654.8 - 658.4 nmH alpha 656.3 nm
Goal : - Understand the nature, origin and evolution of these galaxies, comparing the 3DNTT maps with maps obtained in FIR (MIPS/Spitzer) and UV (Galex) for a detailed analysis of extinction and its relation with other physical quantities such as metal abundance.
- Reference sample for studies at larger redshift.
Large Programme QSOsObservation of 30 quasars at z ~2 in the Lyman alpha line (redshifted at 380 to 400 nm for z ~ 2.2 to 2.3) with the Tunable Filter, with 5 deep images for each target (one at the quasar redshift, two blueshifted and two redshifted).
Goal :The aim is to detect galaxies with a high stellar formation rate around quasars, in order to check if quasars with a high UV luminosity suppress the stellar formation around them as suggested by recent observations with the TTF on the AAT (Barr et al. 2004 et Francis & Bland-Hawthorn 2005). If such an observation is confirmed, it will put strong constraints on the cosmological models.
Other possible programmes A Search for Planetary Nebulae around nearby elliptical galaxies. Tracing the large scale velocity field of galaxies Ionized Gas in Star-forming and luminous infrared galaxies The origin and fate of faint ionized gas in the halos of irregular dwarf galaxies On the lifetime of grand design spiral patterns The Mystery of the Interacting Galaxy Pair NGC 4410a/b Ionization Cones: Probing the Accretion Mode of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei Tracing the eventful life of galaxies in low density environments The origin of asymmetries in isolated galaxies
Integration of the raw data files (different cycles) into an interferogram data cubePhase correction to create wavelength sorted data cubesHanning spectral smoothingSky emission removalSpatial binning/smoothing (adaptive smoothing)Radial velocity maps extractionAddition of the astrometric information (WCS)Kinematical information extraction (RCs)FP data reduction pipeline
Get the data available quickly common database (LAM, LAE, GEPI)
FP data reduction
Near future3D-NTT - Observations of more nearby samples (Barred, Compact Groups, Mergers, Blue Compact Galaxies, LIRG, LSB, ) - Comparison with high redshift galaxies
FP database www.fabryperot.oamp.fr
Double Fabry-Perot Integral Field SpectrometerComparison with other TF instrumentsMerit factor X = NA where A =telescope area, = instrument solid angle, N = number of nights per year
The Taurus Tunable Filter (TTF; 370-950nm) operated during the years 1996-2000 at the WHT and 1996-2003 at the AAT. X = 50(3.9x3.9)(9x9) = 65,000.
The Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter on Magellan (MMTF; 470-900nm) had First Light in Dec 2006. X = 7(6.5x6.5)(27x27) = 220,000.
The Osiris Tunable Filter on Grantecan (OTF; 430-970nm) is due to see First Light in June 2008. X = 100(10x10)(6.7x6.7) = 450,000.
The PFIS on SALT (430-860nm) will have a merit function of X = 10 ? (11x11)(8x8)= 77 000
The 3D-NTT (370-900nm) would have a merit function of X = 50(3.5x3.5)(17x17)= 175,000.The 3DNTT would be a powerful TF survey facility once commissioned.
BTFi Brazilian Tunable FilterField of View (assuming EMCCD 16002 ; 16m pixel)GLAO-fed - FoV ~3 ; Spatial sampling ~0.12 (f/6.7 camera)SL-fed - FoV ~6 ; Spatial sampling ~0.24 (f/3.3 camera)Spectral Resolution:iBTF: 5 < R < 5,500FP: 250 < R < 40,000
LAE to provide: EMCCD controllers (CCCP)
LAM to provide: FP controller + etalon ?
3D spectroscopy : an es