Thar and sahara

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THAR DESERT

THAR DESERTSAHARA DESERT

TheSahara is also known as The Great Desert is the largestSubtropical hot desertand third largestdesertafterAntarcticaand theArctic.

TheThar Desert also known as The Great Indian Desert is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of theIndian Subcontinent that forms a natural boundary betweenIndiaandPakistan. It is the world's9th largest subtropical desert.Thar desert spreads over about 2,340,000km2with 85% in India and the remaining part in Pakistan. It covers more than 2,000,000km2 inRajasthanand extends intoGujarat,Punjab, andHaryana.

Sahara spreads over 9,400,000 square kilometres and covers most ofNorth Africa . . The Sahara stretches from theRed Sea in the east, including parts of theMediterranean, to theAtlantic Oceanin the west. To the south, it is delimited by theSahel, a belt ofsemi-arid tropical savanna that composes the northern region of central and westernSub-Saharan Africa.

The desert landforms of the Sahara are shapedby windor by extremely rare rainfall and include sand dunes and dune fields orsand seas,stone plateaus, gravel plains ,dry valleys,dry lakes andsalt flats. Unusual landforms include theRichat Structurein Mauritania.Several deeply dissected mountains and mountain ranges, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including theAr Mountains,Ahaggar Mountains,Saharan Atlas,Tibesti Mountains,Adrar des Iforas, and the Red Sea hills. The highest peak in the Sahara isEmi Koussi, ashield volcanoin theTibestirange of northern Chad.

The soil of the Thar Desert remains dry for much of the year and is prone towind erosion. High velocity winds blow soil from the desert, depositing some on neighboring fertile lands, and causing shiftingsand duneswithin the desert. . Sand dunes are stabilised by erecting micro-windbreakbarriers with scrub material and subsequentafforestationof the treated dunes with seedlings of shrubs such asphog,senna,castor oil plantand trees such asgum acacia,Prosopis julifloraandlebbek tree.

Sand dunes Sahara desertTHAR DESERT

It is a process of Sahara in which skin of goat is cut off.

Water and housing in THAR DESERT

Occupation The Thar Desert is one of most heavily populated desert areas in the world and the main occupations of people living here are agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is not a dependable proposition in this areaafter the rainy season, at least 33% of crops fail. Animal husbandry, trees and grasses, intercropped with vegetables or fruit trees, is the most viable model for arid, drought-prone regions. The region faces frequent droughts. Overgrazing due to high animal populations, wind and water erosion, mining and other industries result in serious land degradation.FLORA And FAUNA The Saharan flora comprises around 2800 species ofvascular plants. Approximately a quarter of these areendemic. About half of these species are common to the flora of the Arabian deserts. FAUNA comprises of many species like cheetah etc.The central Sahara is estimated to include five hundred species of plants, which is extremely low considering the huge extent of the area. Plants such as acacia trees, palms, succulents, spiny shrubs, and grasses have adapted to the arid conditions, by growing lower to avoid water loss by strong winds, by storing water in their thick stems to use it in dry periods, by having long roots that travel horizontally to reach the maximum area of water and to find any surface moisture and by having small thick leaves or needles to prevent water loss by evapo-transpiration. Plant leaves may dry out totally and then recover.FLORA And FAUNA Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region. Somewildlifespecies, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as theblackbuck,chinkara andIndian wild ass in theRann of Kutch. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of thegrasslandsinto cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor. Other mammals of the Thar Desert include a subspecies ofred fox and thecaracal.THAR DESERT

SAHARA DESERT

MAP OF SAHARA

MAP OF THAR

A NATURAL ROCK ARCH IN SAHARA DESERT

JAISALMAR FORT IN THAR DESERT