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Nursing Theories203 RC (Course Code) Room 202 1:30 4:30pm Saturday

BGen Marlene R Padua AFP (Ret) RN, USRN, MAN Chair, Nursing Research Committee, AU College of Nursing; Faculty, College of Nursing and Graduate School

Nursing Theories203 RC (Course Code) COURSE REQUIREMENTS: 1. Regular Attendance 2. Active Participation in Class discussion/ activities 3. Term paper Thesis Problem, supported by a theoretical framework/works of nursing theorist 4. Critiques of nursing theories 5. Pass mid-term and final exams

Nursing Theories203 RC (Course Code) Grading System Percent 96-100 87-95 Decimal Grade Description 1.00-1.25 1.50-2.00 High Pass Pass

86 & below 2.25 & below Fail

Attendance/Recitation Quizzes/take home exams Major Examination Report Term Paper

Nursing TheoriesTeaching Strategies 1. Lecture-discussion 2. Guided Research Reports Discussion 3. Group Dynamics

Nursing TheoriesCourse Description Understanding the following: 1.concepts, principles, assumptions, theories, 2. paradigms and models which are used as framework for nursing practice, education and research 3. the lives of the nurses who pioneered these theories.

Nursing TheoriesCourse Objectives GENERAL OBJECTIVES: 1. To provide the student with knowledge of theories which have become frameworks for nursing practice, research and education, 2. To develop the students analytical skills, challenge his/ her creative thinking, clarify values and assumptions and determine directions for nursing research, education and practice.

Nursing TheoriesCourse Objectives SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the course, the student must be able to: 1. Be conversant with nursing theories and the various theories underlining nursing practice, research and education; 2. Be conversant with the scientific rigor and discipline necessary for professional nursing practice

Nursing TheoriesCourse Objectives SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: 3. Advance his/ her knowledge of theclient, the environment and the nursing process and thus make rational decision in nursing practice, research and education; 4. Enhance his/her faculties for analytical and creative thinking and thus clarify his/ her own practice, research and education; 5. Enhance his/her professional competency and autonomy through increased theoretical knowledge of scientifically developed methods and approaches to nursing care, nursing research, and nursing education.

Nursing TheoriesThe Great Thinkers in NursingA. Philosophers: Florence Nightingale Modern Nursing Ernestine Weidenbach Helping Art of Clinical Nursing 3. Virginia Henderson Definition of Nursing 4. Faye Glenn Abdellah Twenty one Nursing Problems 5. Lydia Hall Care, Core and Cure Model 6. Jean Watson Philosophy and Science of Caring 7.Patricia Benner - From Novice to Expert- Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice

Nursing TheoriesThe Great Thinkers in Nursing B. Conceptual Models Grand Theories 1. Dorothea Orem Self Care Deficit Theory of Nursing 2. Myra Estein Levine Four Conservative Principles 3. Martha Rogers Unitary Human Beings 4. Dorothy Johnsons Behavioral System Model 5. Sr. Calixta Roy Adaptation Model 6. Beety Neuman System Model (Stressors) 7. Imogene King Goal Attainment theory

Nursing TheoriesThe Great Thinkers in Nursing C. Middle Range Nursing Theories Hildegard Peplau- Psychodynamic Nursing Ida Joan Orlando-Pelletire- Nursing Process Theory Joyce Travelbee- Human-to-Human Relationship Model Joan Riehl-Sisca- Symbolic Interactionism Helen Erickson, Evelyn Tomlin, Mary Ann SwainModeling and Role Modeling

Nursing TheoriesThe Great Thinkers in Nursing C. Middle Range Nursing Theories 6. Ramona Mercer-Maternal Role Attainment Theory 7. Kathryn Barnard- Parent-Child Interaction Model 8. Madeleine Leininger- Cultural Care Theory 9. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse- Man-Living Health 10.Joyce Fitzpatrick- Life Perspective Rhythm Model 11.Margaret Newman- Model of Health 12.Evelyn Adam- Conceptual Model for Nursing 13.Nola Pender- The Health Promotion Model

Nursing Theories203 RC (Course Code)

Professional Stature of Nursing Proven by Theoretical Foundation of its science, art and practice Practice of nursing is blind without theories, theories are empty without its practice

Nursing- Diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems (ANA)

Nursing- a dynamic discipline. (Control) It is an art and a science of caring individual, families, groups and communities geared toward promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness, alleviation of suffering and assisting clients to face death with dignity and peace. It is focused on assisting the client as he responds to health-illness situation, utilizing the nursing process and guided by ethico-legal moral principles. (ADPCN)

Nursing as a Profession(CHARACTERISTICS)

A learned vocation or occupation that has a status of superiority A defined knowledge base Power and authority over training and education Registration requirements for practice Altruistic service/unselfish devotion Code of Ethics Autonomy

Nursing as a Profession

Valued by society because the services professionals provide are beneficial for members of the societyNursing as a Profession

Nursing as an Academic DisciplineDISCIPLINE A branch of knowledge ordered through the theories and methods evolving from more than one worldview of the phenomenon of concern A branch of educational instruction or a department of learning a knowledge

Nursing as a Practice ScienceAPPLIED SCIENCE One that uses the knowledge of basic sciences for some practical end. In practice sciences, research is largely clinical and action oriented (Moody 1990). Thus, as an applied or practical science, Nursing requires research that is applied and clinical (Faucett, 1999).

Why study Nursing Theories?

Nursing is grounded on accepted scientific truths and principles in order to give safe and quality care. Simply put, Nursing Theory strives to explain the Science and Art of Nursing.

Terminology of TheoryPHILOSOPHY - statement of belief and values about human beings and their world. KNOWLEDGE - awareness or perception of reality acquired through insight, learning, or investigation. - In a discipline, it is what is collectively seen to be a reasonably accurate understanding of the world as seen by members of discipline

Terminology of TheoryPHENOMENON - An empirical data or experiences that can be observed Example: Clients behavior guarding behavior at the pain site Interventions care of the client in pain Disease Process Stomach Ulcer

Terminology of TheoryCONCEPTS - Building blocks of theories which can be either be an empirical or abstract data. It enhances ones capacity to understand phenomena as it helps define the meaning of the word. A word picture or basic idea of a phenomenon that symbolizes reality. A. Empirical or concrete concepts directly observed or experienced or tangible like:Ex. Nurse, mother, Manila

B. Abstract concepts indirectly observed or intangibleEx. Love. Care, Freedom, Charity, nursing, community

Terminology of TheoryCONCEPTUAL MODELS - Derived from a persons point of view MODEL - Graphic or symbolic representations of phenomena that objectify and present certain perspective of points about nature or functions or both. Models may be theoretical (not directly observable expressed in language or mathematical symbols or empirical) replicas or observable reality- model of an eye, for example.

Terminology of TheoryPARADIGM - An organizing framework that contains concepts, theories, assumptions, beliefs, values, and principles that form the way a discipline interprets the subject matter with which it is concerned. It describes work to be done and frames an orientation with which the work will be accomplished.

Terminology of TheoryASSUMPTIONS Beliefs about phenomena one must accept as true. Statements that the theorists hold as factual. Ex. All human being need love; Breast milk is the best food for PROPOSITION - Statements that imply the relationships of concepts, assertion of the relationship between concepts derived from theories or generalizations based on empirical or factual data. Example: In Selyes Theory of Stress: Man seeks to attain a desired state by mobilizing his defense Mechanism

Terminology of TheoryFACT - It is an established or verifiable truth HYPOTHESIS - a testable relationship; a shrewd guess or inference; statements of the researchers expectations regarding the relationship between and among the variables under investigation.

Terminology of TheoryRESEARCH - systematic inquiry that uses orderly, disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. AXIOMS - state the most general relationship between concepts. Consist of abstract concepts (ie. Anxiety, personality) that are not directly observable or measurable.

Overview of TheoryTHEORY Systematic explanation of an event in which constructs and concepts are identified and relationships are proposed and predictions made (Streubert- Speziale & Carpenter, 2003). An organized system of accepted knowledge that is composed of concepts, propositions, definitions and assumptions intended to explain a set of fact, event or phenomena (Octaviano and Balita, 2008)

Overview of TheoryTHEORY (cont.) An abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about the relationships among phenomena (Polit and Beck, 2004) A set of statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way. Theories are composed of concepts and the relationships between these concepts. These relationships are presented in a propositional statements that are connected in a logical way (Nieswiadomy 2008)

The Importance of Theory in Nursi