Telling Scotland's Story
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Transcript of Telling Scotland's Story
ScARFSo You Think You Know The Story Of Scotland?
Society of AntiquariesofScotland
1Telling Scotlands StoryScARF
The Atlantis of the North Sea 4How did climate change affect the world of our ancestors?
Frankensteins Mummies 6How has our treatment of the dead changed over time?
Musselburgh and the Mysteries of Mithras 10How do we understand ancient religions from the artefacts left behind?
Facing the Past 12What can new technologies reveal about Scotlands past?
That Obscure Object of Desire 14What can the life of an object tell us about the society that made it?
The Tartan Army on Tour 18What was Scotlands role in the world and how has it changed over time?
The Land of a Million Stories 22How does research change our understanding of the past?
The Scottish Archaeological Research Framework 24
So You Think You Know The Story Of Scotland?Eight thousand years ago, after the collapse of the Norwegian coastal shelf known as the Great Edge, a gigantic tidal wave devastated the east coast of Scotland, the beginning of a process that would see an entire landscape submerged beneath the North Sea.Around 1600BC, in a tiny village on the Hebridean island of North Uist, a series of human body
parts preserved in peat were reassembled as part of an arcane ritual. These would become some of the earliest mummified remains ever found in the British Isles.In the second century AD, on the site of what is today a public park in Musselburgh, the disciples of a mysterious Roman religion _ for a time as popular as Christianity _ met in an underground
temple to worship at the altar of a bull-slaying god called Mithras.On 6 April 1520, on the snow-clad banks of the River Fyris near the Swedish town of Uppsala, an army of Scottish soldiers fought and died for the cause of the Danish crown. Their dismembered bodies were discovered five centuries later, buried in a mass grave beneath a cycle path.
Are You Sure?
3Telling Scotlands Story
...They are digging in remoTe island caves, excavaTing beneaTh buildings in our modern ciTies, and diving in The dark waTers of our lochs... T he past does not stand still. And so the story of Scotland the real story for ever changes.
Some 14,000 years ago, as the glaciers of the last Ice Age melted away, people ventured northwards to hunt and explore. These were our earliest ancestors _ nomads who moved with the seasons through a wild land, and left only the faintest of traces behind.
But we can still find them, if we look hard enough.
Buried beneath earth and sand, we have discovered the places where those ancient hunters first landed and set up camp. We have found flint arrowheads and barbed spear tips shaped from deer antler, millennia-old cooking pits and piles of discarded animal bone. We can stand on the same ground and look the ghosts of our ancestors in the eye.
We can give the story of Scotland a beginning.
Today, across the landscapes of the nation, archaeologists continue to search for the many different threads of this one story. They are digging in remote island caves, excavating beneath buildings in our modern cities, and diving in the dark waters of our lochs. New technology is revolutionising the study of the past. Ground penetrating radar can detect long lost structures hidden in the earth, and laser scans can produce 3D models of entire landscapes and even reconstruct individual faces from human skulls.
Now, for the first time, the Scottish Archaeological Research Framework (ScARF) is bringing together the combined knowledge of all our experts in one place.
But this is just the first step. ScARF also marks the beginning of something even bigger. Spanning millennia _ from the earliest known traces of human activity to the present day _ it is attempting nothing less than the mapping out of the history of Scotland in its entirety.
The goal is to explore the uncharted territory of what we do not know _ to fill in the blanks in the collective memory of Scotland and to better understand how we lived 100, 1,000, and even 10,000 years ago. It is about asking questions, encouraging research and argument, and puzzling out our past from every new fragment of evidence.
It is a million stories waiting to be told, and it is one story. It is the story of Scotland.
...TODAy, ACROSS THE lANDSCApES OF SCOTlAND, ARCHAEOlOGISTS CONTINUE TO SEARCH FOR THE THREADS OF SCOTlANDS STORy...
...THEy ARE ASkING qUESTIONS, ENCOURAGING RESEARCH AND ARGUMENT, AND pUzzlING OUT OUR pAST FROM EvERy NEw FRAGMENT OF EvIDENCE...
...There was a morning - just like any other - when our ancestors made their way to the shoreline to hunt and fish
Maybe they saw it first before they heard it. A wave thirty feet high and hundreds of miles long was heading towards them at tremendous speed
It was already too late to save themselves
5Telling Scotlands StoryScARF
I magine you are walking on the dunes of Montrose Bay, or along the golden expanse of sand by Aberdeen s famous Beach Ballroom. It is a sunny summer s day and families are playing by the shoreline. Perhaps you are at the water s
edge, trousers rolled up as you dip a toe in the surf.
Then, all of a sudden, the tide rushes away from you at a remarkable speed. Soon, everyone on the beach has stopped what they are doing. Just like you, they are staring over the wet sands towards the disappearing North Sea. The wind picks up, blowing into your face from offshore. Maybe you see it first, before you hear it _ a great white line on the horizon. But soon you have to shout to be heard above the roar. A wave 30 feet high and hundreds of miles long is heading towards you at tremendous speed. It will break on the beach and then surge inland, devastating everything in its path. It is already too late to save yourself or anyone near you.This sounds like the stuff of nightmares. Surely it couldnt happen in Scotland. Or could it? Chillingly, archaeology tells us that it already has.
Some 8,000 years ago, Scotland was a ridge of mountains marking the north-western edge of Europe. To the east, a vast, low-lying plain stretched from Aberdeen to Denmark _ an abundant heartland for hunter-gatherers. Slowly but surely, however, this land was disappearing. Sea levels had continued to rise since the end of the last Ice Age, and with every passing year more hunting grounds were lost beneath the water. Over time, this gradual process may well have isolated Britain from the rest of the continent. But what we now believe is that it was not just climate change that helped to create the island we are part of today _ it was also catastrophe.
All along the east coast of Scotland, thick lines of sand sediment have been found layered in the earth far above sea level. There are deposits in Shetland, the Montrose Basin and even 50 miles inland along the Firth of Forth. Carbon dating of plant material from the sediments clusters around one specific date _ 6100BC.
There was a morning _ just like any other _ when our ancestors made their way to the shoreline to hunt and fish. And they had no idea that, hundreds of miles away across the sea, a gigantic shelf of Norwegian bedrock known as Storegga _ Norse for the Great Edge _ had collapsed into the Atlantic.
The tidal wave it triggered caused the greatest natural disaster northern Europe has ever known. Shetland was engulfed first, before the immense wall of water smashed into Scotlands east coast. But the greatest casualty was the land at the centre of the peninsula. When the wave subsided it was never the same again. Instead, like a prehistoric Atlantis, much of it was lost for ever beneath the waters of the North Sea.
In the last hundred years, strange fragments from this drowned world have been brought back to the surface. Mammoth ivory, lions teeth and bones of woolly rhino have been found tangled in fishermens nets. Dredged lumps of peat have concealed harpoons fashioned from deer antler, fish prongs and flint tools. Archaeologists now call the place that these artefacts came from Doggerland _ after the famous shipping forecast region of the Dogger Bank.
Over the past few decades, companies prospecting for oil and gas have, in minute detail, surveyed, probed and bored large tracts of the North Sea floor. Now, by using this data, scientists and researchers have pieced together the first 3D map of the lost landscape of Doggerland. What has emerged is an astonishing vista of hills, valleys, rivers, lakes, swamps and estuar-ies. By examining the fossil record and pollen grains, they have been able to tell which animals roamed these sunken plains, and what plants and vegetation grew there. And, perhaps most remarkable
of all, they have worked out its human population _ calculating that thousands of people could have been living on Doggerland when catastrophe struck.
Marine archaeology can take us back to the very moment when the tidal wave hit, and it can describe the aftermath as Scotland gradually became part of an island. Yet it can do much more than that. It can tell us what happened to our ancestors during a phase of intense climate change. It can reconstruct a time of rising sea levels, disappearing coastlines and extreme weather patterns _ a scenario that may sound eerily familiar.
Today, from Shetland and Orkney to the western seaboard and the Outer Hebri-des, the sea is steadily consuming many of our coastal and island landscapes. Vital undiscovered traces of the past are sinking beneath the waves, and it is a race against time and tide to record and understand them before they are gone.
Yet this archaeology is not just about looking backwards. While underwater worlds