TEKS 25B, 26C The Spread of Hellenistic C ?? Euclid The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 ... of the...

TEKS 25B, 26C The Spread of Hellenistic C ?? Euclid The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 ... of the world after Alexander’s death. ... culture, a blend of cultures) insttRuc
TEKS 25B, 26C The Spread of Hellenistic C ?? Euclid The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 ... of the world after Alexander’s death. ... culture, a blend of cultures) insttRuc
TEKS 25B, 26C The Spread of Hellenistic C ?? Euclid The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 ... of the world after Alexander’s death. ... culture, a blend of cultures) insttRuc
TEKS 25B, 26C The Spread of Hellenistic C ?? Euclid The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 ... of the world after Alexander’s death. ... culture, a blend of cultures) insttRuc
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Transcript of TEKS 25B, 26C The Spread of Hellenistic C ?? Euclid The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5 ... of the...

  • TAKING NOTES

    CULTURAL INTERACTION Hellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other influences, flourished throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia.

    Western civilization today continues to be influenced by diverse cultures.

    Hellenistic Alexandria Euclid

    The Spread of Hellenistic Culture

    5

    MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES

    Archimedes Colossus of

    Rhodes

    SETTING THE STAGE Alexanders ambitions were cultural as well as military and political. During his wars of conquest, he actively sought to meld the conquered culture with that of the Greeks. He started new cities as administrative centers and outposts of Greek culture. These cities, from Egyptian Alexandria in the south to the Asian Alexandrias in the east, adopted many Greek patterns and customs. After Alexanders death, trade, a shared Greek culture, and a com-mon language continued to link the cities together. But each region had its own traditional ways of life, religion, and government that no ruler could afford to overlook.

    Hellenistic Culture in AlexandriaAs a result of Alexanders policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. Greek (also known as Hellenic) culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influ-ences. This blending became known as Hellenistic culture. Koine (koyNAY), the popular spoken language used in Hellenistic cities, was the direct result of cultural blending. The word koine came from the Greek word for common. The language was a dialect of Greek. This language enabled educated people and traders from diverse backgrounds to communicate in cities throughout the Hellenistic world.

    Trade and Cultural Diversity Among the many cities of the Hellenistic world, the Egyptian city of Alexandria became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization. Alexandria occupied a strategic site on the western edge of the Nile delta. Trade ships from all around the Mediterranean docked in its spacious harbor. Alexandrias thriving commerce enabled it to grow and prosper. By the third century b.c., Alexandria had become an international community, with a rich mixture of customs and traditions from Egypt and from the Aegean. Its diverse population exceeded half a million people.

    Alexandrias Attractions Both residents and visitors admired Alexandrias great beauty. Broad avenues lined with statues of Greek gods divided the city into blocks. Rulers built magnificent royal palaces overlooking the harbor. A much visited tomb contained Alexanders elaborate glass coffin. Soaring more than 350 feet over the harbor stood an enormous stone lighthouse called the Pharos. This lighthouse contained a polished bronze mirror that, at night, reflected the

    Use the graphic organizer online to take notes on Hellenistic achievements in science and the arts.

    TEKS 25B, 26C

    Pictured Above: (L) Young girl winning chariot race. Engraving from red-figure Greek vase; (R) The Propylaea and the Parthenon, Athens, Greece

    146 Chapter 5

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    Section 5 Program reSourceS

    ALL STUDENTSIn-Depth Resources: Unit 2GuidedReading,p.5HistoryMakers:Archimedes,p.19

    Formal AssessmentSectionQuiz,p.75

    ENGLISH LEARNERSIn-Depth Resources in SpanishGuidedReading,p.42

    Spanish/English Guided Reading WorkbookSection5

    STRUGGLING READERSIn-Depth Resources: Unit 2GuidedReading,p.5BuildingVocabulary,p.6ReteachingActivity,p.25

    Guided Reading WorkbookSection5

    Lesson PLan

    objectives DefineHellenisticculture.

    IdentifytheachievementsofHellenisticscholars.

    SummarizethemajorphilosophiesandartisticstylesoftheHellenisticperiod.

    focus & motivateHellenisticculturedominatedmuchoftheworldafterAlexandersdeath.Askstudentsifanyoneculturenowdominatestheworld.(Possible Answers: American culture, a blend of cultures)

    instRuctHellenistic culture in alexandria

    Critical Thinking WhymightKoinehavebeennamed

    forthewordcommon?(Possible Answer: It was a language people had in common.)

    WhymightAlexanderhavefoundedalibraryinAlexandria?(Possible Answer: Aristotle had given him a love of learning.)

    In-Depth Resources: Unit 2GuidedReading,p.5(alsoinSpanish)

    Critical Thinking TransparenciesCT5ElementsofGreekCulture

    INTEGRATED TECHNoLoGyPower Presentations

    Critical Thinking TransparenciesCT5ElementsofGreekCultureCT41Chapter5VisualSummary

    TEKS 25B summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Western civilizations that originated in Greece . . . ; 26C identify examples of art . . . and literature that transcend the cultures in which they were created and convey universal themes.

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  • Eratosthenes estimateof the circumferencebetween 28,000and 29,000 miles

    Earth Aristarchus estimate300 times the size of Earth

    The Sun is actually 1.3 million times the size of Earth.

    actual circumference24,860 miles

    EarthMoon

    VenusSun

    Mars

    SaturnJupiter

    Ptolemy's view of the universe

    circumference

    Mercury

    Eratosthenes estimateof the circumferencebetween 28,000and 29,000 miles

    Earth Aristarchus estimate300 times the size of Earth

    The Sun is actually 1.3 million times the size of Earth.

    actual circumference24,860 miles

    EarthMoon

    VenusSun

    Mars

    SaturnJupiter

    Ptolemy's view of the universe

    circumference

    Mercury

    Eratosthenes estimateof the circumferencebetween 28,000and 29,000 miles

    Earth Aristarchus estimate300 times the size of Earth

    The Sun is actually 1.3 million times the size of Earth.

    actual circumference24,860 miles

    EarthMoon

    VenusSun

    Mars

    SaturnJupiter

    Ptolemy's view of the universe

    circumference

    Mercury

    The Solar SystemEarth

    SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting Charts1. Comparing Where were Greek astronomers ideas most incorrect compared with modern concepts?2. Clarifying Which estimate is closest to modern measurements? How could the Hellenists be so

    accurate?

    Greek Astronomy

    The Sun

    VocabularyMuseum means house of the muses.

    Hipparchus, who lived in Alexandria for a time, charted the position of 850 stars.

    light from a blazing fire. Alexandrias greatest attractions were its famous museum and library. The museum was a temple dedicated to the Muses, the Greek god-desses of arts and sciences. It contained art galleries, a zoo, botanical gardens, and even a dining hall. The museum was an institute of advanced study.

    The Alexandrian Library stood nearby. Its collection of half a million papyrus scrolls included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature. As the first true research library in the world, it helped promote the work of a gifted group of schol-ars. These scholars greatly respected the earlier works of classical literature and learning. They produced commentaries that explained these works.

    Science and TechnologyHellenistic scholars, particularly those in Alexandria, built on achievements of earlier Greek thinkers who had themselves been influenced by the nearby Babylonian and Egyptian cultures.

    Astronomy Alexandrias museum contained a small observatory in which astronomers could study the planets and stars. One astronomer, Aristarchus (arihsTAHrkuhs) of samos, reached two significant scientific conclusions. In one, he estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than Earth. Although he greatly underestimated the suns true size, Aristarchus disproved the widely held belief that the sun was smaller than Greece. In another conclusion, he proposed that Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. Unfortunately for science, other astronomers refused to support Aristarchus theory. In the second century a.d., Alexandrias last renowned astrono-mer, Ptolemy, incorrectly placed Earth at the center of the solar system. Astronomers accepted this view for the next 14 centuries.

    Eratosthenes (ehruhTAHsthuhneez), the director of the Alexandrian Library, tried to calculate Earths true size. Using geometry, he computed Earths circumfer-ence at between 28,000 and 29,000 miles. Modern measurements put the circumfer-ence at 24,860 miles. As well as a highly regarded astronomer and mathematician, Eratosthenes also was a poet and historian.

    Mathematics and Physics In their work, Eratosthenes and Aristarchus used a geometry text compiled by Euclid (yOOklihd). Euclid was a highly regarded

    Classical Greece 147

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    Integrated Assessment

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    16 Chapter 3 Product and Performance Assessment

    Comments ________________________________________________________________________________

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    Overall rating ______________________________________________________________________________

    PRODUCT AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Standards for Evaluating a Product or Performance

    Purpose and Treatment Exceptional Acceptable Poor

    1. The purpose of the product or presentation is clear.

    2. The product or presentation meets the stated purpose.

    3. The topic has been taken seriously.

    4. The topic has been treated thoroughly.

    5. A variety of resources h