Technically Write

download Technically Write

of 121

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)



Transcript of Technically Write

  • Technically Writewith Alistair KingWelcome to

  • Spoken vs WrittenSpoken LanguageWritten Languageis impermanentis permanentand negotiableand non-negotiable

  • Note that Written Language and Spoken Language have different structures.Written LanguageSpoken Language

  • EvaluationNew machinesOld machinesNew productCompanyDemand

  • Topic

    What is the document about?

  • Revised Maintenance Procedures

    We refer to the above.We refer to the above subject.We refer to the above-mentioned subject.


  • This report describes the revised maintenance procedures, initiated in March, 2009 and assesses their impact on production capacity.Topic Sentence:A topic sentence expands or extends the title. Identifies, introduces or summarizes the topic.


  • Final Particulars of Extension of Time for CompletionIn accordance with the Clause _______, of the Conditions of Contract,we enclose the final details in respect of the event referred to in our notification / letter of _______ .

  • We write to inform you that the progress of the Works has been suspended by reason of climatic conditions on the Site Suspension of the Works due to Climatic Conditions on the Site

  • Read this paragraph and devise a title and a topic sentence.

    The globalization trend is moving programming jobs from Europe and the US to low-labour countries such as China or India. This appears to place computer science research and departments at risk of being considered as working on obsolete technologyHowever, the opposite is true. Computer science is on the verge of a new generation of computing that is leading to innovation not only in computing but also in business, science, and all other endeavours that depend on computing. It could be that this very volatile situation with regard to the l;abour market is of benefit to the industry.Computer science appears to be in a period of crisis.

  • Topicestablish the topicmaintain the topic

  • Washing clothes is simple. First, arrange the clothes into groups according to their colours. In some cases, you may find that one group is sufficient. If you lack a washing machine, you may have to take the clothes to a laundry. It is important not to wash too many clothes at one time because faults in the washing machine may occur. Washing machine repairs are often expensive and time-consuming. 1/2

  • Washing ClothesAt first, washing clothes may appear complicated; soon however, it will become part of life. It is difficult to imagine dispensing with the need for washing clothes, but, in the future, it may be possible. After you have completed washing the clothes, arrange the clothes into groups according to who owns them and place them in their respective cupboards. In due course, they will be removed and worn again and then the cycle of washing clothes will be repeated.2/2

  • Active or Passive?

  • The cleanercleansthe floorA policemanis going to arrestthat manSomebodyhas stolenmy walletunimportantunnecessaryunknown

  • The Passive Version:(focus on the patient)The floor is cleaned.

  • The Passive Version:(focus on the patient)That man is going to be arrested.

  • The Passive Version:(focus on the patient)My wallet has been stolen.

  • Passive Forms

    Patient(receives the action)to be(tense and mood)Past Participle(action)The systemThe machineThe houseThe windowThe supplierThe lensisarewaswerehas beenhad beenwill bemust becould beinstalledrepairedbuiltstolencleanedcontactedbrokenupdated

  • Active or Passive?A thorough investigation has been conducted and the causes have been identified.

    We have conducted a thorough investigation and we have identified the causes.

  • Active or Passive? The technicians have identified the following faults: Technicians Technicians Technicians Technicians The following faults have been identified: Faults Faults Faults Faults Faults

  • The Contractor shall take every reasonable precaution to protect any section of the Works

    Every reasonable precaution shall be taken by the Contractor to protect any section of the Works

    The Contractor shall give the Engineer, in writing, twenty-one days notice of the date

    The Engineer shall be given, in writing by the Contractor, twenty-one days notice of the date

  • Active or PassiveFirst we subjected the blintzer coils to the Hinzlefetzer stress test. Then we measured the stress effects in bluto units. We found an unusually low aggregation of blutomin in the coil material. Then we initiated another round of tests. Finally, we placed a telephone order for pizza and diet Coke.

  • Active or PassivePassive: The form must be signed by the employee to authorize release of physician information to the insurance company. Active: The employee must sign the form to authorize release of physician information to the insurance company.

  • Active or PassivePassive: It should be noted that any change to the procedure must be recorded in the master file. Active/ Imperative: Note: When you change the procedure, record the change in the master file.

  • Active or PassivePassive:Static-sensitive components are stored in protective enclosures. Active/ Imperative: Store static-sensitive components in protective enclosures.

  • Grammatical DifferencesDescriptionExplanationInstructionWHAT?WHY?HOW?

  • Constructing a Solar Still

  • B r e a kfor Lunch

  • Language?

  • The basic message transmitted from the speaker/writer to the listener/readerTwo Aspects of CommunicationTransactional

  • Please settle your bill by otherwise we shall have to resort to legal action.Pay now or well take you to court!Kindly be advised that failure to effect immediate payment will inevitably lead to the commencement of legal action.

  • Please give this your utmost priority.I want it and I want it NOW! I wonder if I could possibly ask you if you might

  • The basic message transmitted from the speaker/writer to the listener/readerTwo Aspects of CommunicationTransactionalThe reaction elicited by the way in which the message is presentedInteractional

  • Transactional - InteractionalTransactional language is used to convey "factual or propositional information" and has the primary purpose of "the efficient transference of information". Interactional language, by contrast, is used to establish and maintain social relationships.

    Discourse Analysis Brown, G and Yule,G (1983)

  • Sit Down !Kindly assume a seated position.Would you mind sitting down ?Please take a seat.Would you like to take a seat ?Effective communication is about making the right choicesDo you:demand or request?reject or decline?complain or highlight?

  • Transactional + Interactional= Effective CommunicationCertain features of some business documents militate against Effective Communication:VERBOSITYCIRCUMLOCUTIONTAUTOLOGY

  • We hereby wish to inform of the following alterations to the schedule.OR

    Please note the following alterations to the schedule.VerboseUngrammatical

  • OR

    We are enclosing a copy of the report which you requested.As per your valued recent request, enclosed herewith please find a copy of the above-mentioned report for your kind perusal and necessary action.VerboseArchaicTautologous

  • Kindly be advised of our revised operating procedure, as noted below:Or

    Please note our revised operating procedure:VerboseImpersonal

  • The teleconversation this morning with your goodself refers OR

    As I/you/we suggested/clarified/requested/agreed/decided/highlighted on the telephone this morning, VerboseArchaicUnfocused

  • In the event of any enquiries, please do not hesitate to contact the undersigned.OR

    Please contact me/us if you have any enquiries.VerboseCircumlocutiousImpersonal

  • We would appreciate it, if you could attend to the above-mentioned matter at your earliest possible convenience.Or

    We would appreciate your prompt attention to this matter.VerboseCircumlocutious

  • Dear Valued Customer,We look forward to your favourable reply.XWe refer to the above.XX

  • The five CsCLEAR: The document can be understood on the first reading.CONCISE: The document is down to an intelligent and intelligible minimum.COMPLETE: All necessary material has been included.CORRECT: The document is accurately written and the points verifiable.COURTEOUS: The document treats the reader with respect.Communicative


  • a TENSE afternoon!

  • TenseWe have accepted the invitation to the function.

    We accepted the invitation on 25th January.

    They cancelled the function on 26th January.

    We had accepted the invitation to the function when they cancelled the function.Present PerfectSimple PastSimple PastPast PerfectSimple Past

  • The bridge collapsed because it rained heavily.

  • The bridge collapsed because it rained heavily.

  • The bridge collapsed because it had rained heavily.The bridge collapsed because it rained heavily.

  • The student failed his exam because he played football the whole time.The student failed his exam because he HAD played football the whole time.

  • He sustained an electric shock because he had touched the live wire.X

  • Time Line

  • 1989SIMPLE PAST2013NOWTime LineI visited Los Angeles in 1989.

  • Iwamatsu Ltd.Iwamatsu Limited ____________ (establish) in 1935 to manufacture machine tools and mining equipment. In 1985, the c