Teachersâ€™ attitudes and motivations for using call in and around the language...
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- 1. TEACHERS ATTITUDES TO AND MOTIVATIONS FOR USING CALL IN AND AROUND THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM What motivates the teachers use of CALL both in and around the language classroom? What are the main criticisms and doubts that teachers have? What are the institutional and social pressures upon teachers to use CALL and other multimedia in their classrooms? Are CALL applications perceived as more motivating to students of the digital native generation? What type of motivational activities are being used?Based on surveys sent to a distribution list of teachers interested in CALL, interviews conducted with teachersat a private language school in the UK and short informal observations about how CALL was being incorporated into class, this paper aims to get an understanding of how teachers perceive CALL as a motivational factor. In particular the focus is on the young digital native students verses the often lesstechnologically adept digital immigrant teachers (Prensky, 2001) and the possible shift to a more learner centred class this facilitates.
2. Context CALL has a growing role in Language Teaching and research (Levy & Stockwell, 2006) Teachers are central to successful CALL application andIf the Internet is an information practice (Hubbard, 2008) superhighway, then teachers just mightbe the road-kill on the asphalt of the So, what are teachers information superhighway. attitudes to CALL? (Kirschner & Selinger, 2003: 5) 3. Research Questions What are teachers attitudes to CALL applications in general? Why do they use them in class? Is there any institutional pressure to use them? CPD forexample. Is there any social pressure? Is there any pressure from students? To what extent do teachers feel CALL applications contribute to student motivation? Why? 4. Methodology Qualitative research to gain an insight into the multifaceted nature of CALL and motivation Semi-structured interviews Open questions in survey Qualitative research to examine if results are generalisable outside of context. Descriptive data 5. Data Collection Interviews collected from 4 teachers in a private adult English language school in London 2 male and 2 female All aged between 30 45 Teaching experience 3-12 years Questionnaires sent to several distribution lists: TESL-L TESLCA-L IATEFL LTSIG Kings College ELT and Applied Linguistics MA students Personal list compiled of teachers known through work 6. Results Respondents : 179Gender male female 7. Respondents L1 PortugueseOther2%15%KoreanGreek 2% 2% Arabic 2% Chinese 3%Spanish4%English70% 8. Survey Participants Digital Literacy Have you taken any courses in educationaluses of technology?Yes No Crosstabs 9. Age (50+) Crosstab Digital Literacy 1210 8 650 -5455 604 over 60 2 0I am very confident about I am confident in everyday I use computers but I amMy knowledge ofI am not at all confident my ability with most uses of computers not really an expertcomputers is pretty basic with computers aspects of computer usebut I can do some things okay 10. Gender Crosstab Digital Literacy 50.0 45.0 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 % Male 20.0 % Female 15.0 10.05.00.0I am very confident about I am confident in everyday I use computers but I amMy knowledge ofI am not at all confident my ability with most uses of computers not really an expertcomputers is pretty basic with computers aspects of computer usebut I can do some things okay 11. Survey participants digital literacydata set Choose the statement that best describes your own level of computer literacy: Please select one for both personal and teaching contextsI am very MyconfidentI am I use knowledge ofI am not at allabout myconfident in computerscomputers is confident Response Answer Options ability with everyday but I am not pretty basic with Count most aspects uses of really anbut I can docomputers of computercomputersexpertsome thingsuseokay For personal use84731730177 In a teaching context 61673682174 Other (please specify) 3 answered question 177 skipped question2 12. Definition of CALL Working definition: CALL is used to refer to the way teachers use computers both in and around their classrooms (Following Levy, 1997) For the interviews and analysis, focus was on data about the use of CALL in class and as a self-access resource. 13. Survey participants CALL usage 14. Survey participants CALL usage datasetHow would you characterise the main purpose of your CALL usage?Response Response Answer OptionsPercentCount Using computers as a teaching tool in class 33.7% 55 Using computers as a resource for preparing 45.4% 74 lessons Using computers to refer to students for self-study8.6% 14 Dont know 3.1%5 Other (please specify) 9.2% 15 answered question163 skipped question16 15. CALL usage comments 16. Survey participants CALL Motivatingfor students Crosstabs 17. Older participants CALL motivating 18. Low Digital Literacy CALL motivating 19. CALL motivating data setDo you think using computer based language learning applications in class is more motivating for students than classes which do not utilise technology?ResponseResponse Answer Options Percent Count Definitely 47.2% 75 Yes, a little29.6% 47 Neither13.2% 21 No6.3% 10 Definitely not0.6%1 Dont know3.1%5 Why / why not? 50answered question159skipped question20 20. CALL motivating for students -comments Hands Ss. more self-directed learning control &promotes independent learning within in a supportive environment. It connects to young learner's experiences with IT in everyday life - very relevant for them. 21. CALL motivating for students - commentsThe main advantage is that students can work at their ownpace and at their own level. It's usually more motivatingthan sitting behind a desk, though it should not replace theclassroom entirely. The computer can be used as a self- access tool that students can access at home in their owntime.Because you can pretty much stand back and organisethemselves. And obviously PowerPoint, thats something they are going to have to do when they go to university. So they should be using that all the time. so it prepares them a bit more and makes it a bit more relevant to them. - Matt 22. CALL motivating for students - commentsBy themselves, no *computers+ are not a motivation, but they can be used as part of a course to facilitate motivation. By providing amore immediate focus and then for encouraging the students to achieve that result, I suppose. - Daniel 23. CALL motivating for students - comments They do seem to focus more, in fact Im sure that if you compared two groups doing anopen cloze CAE for example. The ones on computers would be more focused. Its the immediacy of the media, is what helps that.- Daniel 24. PressureNo, I dont feel the pressure from *the students], no. But I think every teacher wants to make their lessons interesting and relevant. And you know, you want to keep [students] motivated, happy and learning. - Matt I hope that there is institutionalpressure for us to get skilled up on those and use them in class, thatd beawesome. - Matt 25. EfficacyI mean, in terms of skills well I think thatsdevelopment. Yeah, definitely. And I think itadds depth to your knowledge, if you can use its more tools really, more tools at yourdisposal. - Matt 26. Why do teachers use CALL? [CALL] opens up a lot of opportunities for the students, you can show them different websites where they can practice at home, and I think its good because it allows them access to a lot of different paths where they can get instant access to real life English Agnes 27. Why do teachers use CALL? Computers are an everyday part of life and is rapidly becoming necessity in today's world. By bringing it into the classroom we can show students how to utilise these technologies in their learning.I think the main advantage is flexibility and variety with CALL. I cansave anything we do in a word document if I use the laptop +projector at my college. I have more choice in listening texts. I have access to an online dictionary which I can then show on the board via the laptop. If anything comes up in conversations, we can find outmore information on the Internet. Honestly, I think possibilities are endless. 28. Why do teachers use CALL? Students living away from English speakingcountries now have the chance to interact authentically and meaningfully with native/non-native speakers ONLY if teachers realized of this advantage!!! 29. Why do teachers use CALL?Our students will use computers in most aspects of their study/work life. But the fact is that most of our students, or indeed any language learners will use acomputer for the majority of theircommunication in English. It's appropriate that we teach in the same context. - Kat 30. Why do teachers use CALL? The reason is to give them access to a wider range of material. Daniel Its good because it allows the student to take their own initiative and try and find the answers to their questions.It gives them a bit of independence. - Agnes 31. Why do teachers use CALL? Like I said before, its just to change things upfrom the day to day, to make it more relevant to the students, because thatssomething they are involvedwith, technology all the time, and theyre going to be involved with technology all the time. - Matt 32. Teachers Motivation Predominantly intrinsic motivation pressure not present or perceived as negative Student response to technology Students expectations featured less heavily than their response to the medium A tool to access resources Variation & power of media access Authentic Autonomous Shift student centeredness 33. Discussion Teachers believe CALL is more motivating for students Teachers are intrinsically motivated to use CALL authenticity empowering student Variety Autonomy Efficacy is seen as important Support, training and facilities are vital Fac