Te Ara Whakapiki Taitamariki: Youth’12
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Te Ara Whakapiki Taitamariki: Youth12
Youth2000 Survey SeriesDr Sue Crengle, Dr Terryann Clark & The Adolescent Health Research GroupAcknowledge Minister Turia, Minister Nicki Kaye, Sue CrengleReally brief overview culmination of many years worth of research and many peoples dedication to advancing the health of New Zealands yp and in particular Maori young people1
The Adolescent Health Research Group (AHRG)To provide high quality, accurate and timely research that seeks to improve the health and wellbeing of young people in Aotearoa, New Zealand
Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nz
The Youth2000 Survey Series1. National Secondary School Student Surveys2001 - 9,699 adolescents2007 - 9,107 adolescents2012 - 8,500 adolescents
2. School Climate Surveys 2007 School Climate 2012/13 School Climate
Reports available at www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nz3. Alternative Education Surveys 2009 - 335 adolescents2000 - 268 adolescents
4. Teen Parent Unit Survey2006 - 220 adolescents
5. Wharekura Survey 2007 - 22 kura and 677 taiohi*
*Confidential reportAdolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nz
Youth2000 series sample characteristics200120072012Schools114 (86% response)96 (84% response)91 (73% response)Decile low med highn264939%22.943.134.2n155225%16.356.527.2n263629%28.639.631.9Students9,567 (73% response)9,107 (74% response)8,500 (68% response)Gender Male Femalen4,4145,152%46.153.9n4,9114,187%54.046.0n3,8744,623%45.654.4Ethnicity Mori Pacific Asian NZ Euro Othern2,3257686795,219417%24.7%8.2%7.2%55.4%4.4%n1,7021,1781,3106,871817%18.7%10.2%12.4%52.8%5.8%n1,7011,2011,0514,024511%20.0%14.1%12.4%47.7%6.0%>1 ethnic groups29%39%42%Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzIn this busy slide we can see that in 2012 we have a slightly smaller number of schools and less students compared to previous years seen in the yellow and orange lines of this table.
However, we have a very even spread of school deciles/neighbourhood deprivation in 2012 than in previous years.
We also have a really good proportion of Mori, Pacific and Asian students in the 2012 sample, slightly more than you might expect for the entire youth population of NZ.
Finally of interest is that 42% of the students in 2012 chose more than one ethnic group (in the pink line) this is increasing with each wave of the survey and show a very ethnically diverse population.
Youth12 National Health and Wellbeing Survey
Theresa (Terry) Fleming, on behalf of &The Adolescent Health Research Group
ResultsI am going to give you a brief overview of some key findings- there is a huge amount of information in this reports, so I urge you to read it! 6
Iwi affiliations and te reo Maori 77% of taitamariki know their iwi affiliations (60% in 2001) 71% are proud to be Maori 46% understand te reo Maori well (37% in 2007)31% speak to reo Maori well (31% in 2007)
Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzIncreasingly taitamariki Mori are aware of their whakapapa and know their iwi affiliations and 71% are proud to be Mori. Over time there is increasing ability of young people who understand te reo Mori and speak to reo Mori.
Whnau Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzOverall Mori youth said that their parents cared a lot, they were close to their families and they all had fun together. Of interest here is that 50% of Mori girls, and 40% of boys saying they aren't getting enough time with their parents. This is often counter-intuitive to what many parents think that teenagers/taitamariki want. There is no difference between Maori and NZ Euro for feeling close to their families, but Maori are less likley to say they get enough time with their parents. 8
Socio-economic environmentsTaitamariki come from areas of high deprivation (low SES)14% say their parents worry about not having enough food6% live in overcrowded homes Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzIf you look to the right at the pie charts you can see that Mori are significantly more likely to come from areas of high deprivation (highlighted in the green) compared to NZ European/Pakeha students14% say that their parents worry about not having enough food and this increases to 18% for students in high deprivation areas. In 2001, this was 11% of students worry about food. 6% say they live in overcrowded homes, with 17% saying that someone slept in their living room, 8% said someone slept in their garage and 2% in a caravan.
SchoolMost students feel safe at school (86%)6% report frequent bullying25% report their teachers care about them a lot43% say their teachers are fair89% say their teachers expect them to do well83% plan to complete school to Year 1352% pursue further education, 36% look for a job, 10% not sure
Complete school to Year 13(p= 0.0002)Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzMost young people feel safe at school, but 6% say that they are bullied at least once a week or more. The perception that teachers care is essential in keeping Maori engaged in schooling 25% report their teachers care, this hasnt change over the past 11 years and similar to NZ European rates. However, Maori were less likey to report that their teachers were fair, or feel their teachers have hihg expectations of them compared to NZEThe good news is that the proportion of yp who want to complete hihg school has increased dramatically. If we look at this graph we can see that Maori are catching up to NZE and the disparities here appear to be narrowing
Risky driving behaviours Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzMVCs are one of the biggest killers of NZ youth, this graph shows that yp driving behaviours have continued to improve over the past 11 year11
Suicide attempts and depressive symptomsAdolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzDepressive symptoms have slightly reduced over the past 11 years and these are similar rates to NZESuicide attempt rates have reduced significantly since 2001, but sadly Maori are significantly more likley to report a suicide attempt compared to NZE12
Substance useThis is a good news slide smoking has reduced 66%, weekly drinking reduced 46% and 41% marijuana13
Sexual and reproductive health Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nz27% of Maori secondary school students are sexually active this has reduced over timeMaori were less likley than NZE to use contraception consistently, but there was no difference for condoms use. 14
ViolenceAdolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzThere are some good trends with reducing violence among young people, they are less likley to be hit by someone on purpose compared to 2001.Similarly witnessing adults hit a child in the home, and witnessing adults hitting each other has decreased over time although these rates are still unacceptably high.15
Access to servicesAdolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzMost young people report good health, but 22% report a chronic illness and 8% report a disability. Abilitty to access healthcare is essential to keep young people well but 22% said that they had not been able to access the healthcare they had needed in the past year. In particualr access to primary care has declined since 2001. What this slide shows is that poorer youth has poorer access to primary care/GPs, pharmacys, emergencey care. It looks like school based healht care is importatn to fill some of those gaps for Maori youth.16
DisparitiesLess likely to reportFeeling close to whanauEnough time with whanauBullied at schoolTeachers treating students fairlyPeople at school expecting them to do wellExcellent, very good, good healthGP care in past yearAlways use contraceptionRegular part time workWear seat belts (esp younger students)
More likely to reportUnable to access healthcareAttempt suicideBe a passenger with driver who had been drinkingBeing driven by someone dangerouslyWeekly use of marijuanaWitness adults hitting children in their homeWitness adults hitting each other in the homeSexual coercion/abuseFeeling safe in their neighbourhoodBeing sexually active (esp younger students)Smoking weekly (females only)Be hit on purpose (females only)Weekly alcohol (females and younger students)Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nz17
Are the disparities reducing for Mori youth?Most disparities comparing Mori to NZ European/Pkeh students show little difference BUT disparities are narrowing for:
Students saying that they intend to complete secondary school (Year 13)Significant depressive symptomsWeekly or more frequent smokingBeing a passenger with someone who had been drinking alcoholBeing currently sexually activeWitnessing violence in the home
Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nz
Percentage change for Taitamariki Mori between 2001 and 2012
Adolescent Health Research Group www.youthresearch.auckland.ac.nzConclusionsThis current generation of taitamariki Mori are making positive lifestyle and educational decisions Must continue with current comprehensive and sustained strategies that are making a differenceNew priority areas: Raising teacher expectations, sexual and reproductive health, depression, improving primary care access, affordable healthy food and facilitate employment opportunitiesDisparities for Mori youth remain Develop c