tamadun mesir purba
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Ancient EgyptThe Impact of Civilisation on Medical Developments
The Nile Gives Birth to a New Civilisation (A) THE DELTA North of Memphis, the Nile divided into channels, to form a delta. Much of this land was swampy, but the rest was good for farming. (B) OASIS The Western Desert had a few places where enough water was available for crops to be grown. These were called oases. (C) THE EASTERN DESERT The Eastern Desert had no oases but it contained valuable minerals, including gold. (D) THE VALLEY The valley was only 19 km wide but over 5,960 km long. (E) CATARACTS Ships sailing south were stopped by cataracts (rapids).
Good Farming Land Irrigation systems Complex flood patterns Mathematical skills required Advanced planning required
Producing More than enough Food(A) HARVEST When the main crops were ready, nearly everyone - men and women, even priests - helped with the harvest. (B) MUSIC Musicians played while work went on in the fields. At planting time, magic spells were chanted to make the crops grow. (C) WINNOWING Women scooped the grain up with wooden trays, letting the chaff blow away while the heavier grain fell to the ground. (D) TAXES Farmers paid part of their crop as taxes. Scribes kept careful records of the amounts. (E) CATTLE Young boys helped to look after the livestock. A man's wealth could be judged by the cattle he owned. Farmers also owned sheep, goats, and donkeys.
Surplus Food Produced Store for future use Trade for other goods Not everyone needs to farm New trades and specialities develop
Trading the Surplus (A) MERCHANT SHIP Small boats were made of bundles of reeds tied together. Larger ships were built of wood. This one sailed through the dangerous Red Sea. (B) CARGO Ships had no deck, except for short sections at each end, and the crew stowed cargo in the open hold. The ship had oars and one large sail. (C) THE LAND OF PUNT Ships that sailed to Punt were carried across the desert in pieces and built on the shore of the Red Sea. Punt was probably in eastern Africa, but nobody knows exactly where.
New Products and Ideas can be imported Makes money which can be invested Cities To please the Gods
(A) POTTERY Pots of many shapes and sizes were made from local clay. It was shaped by hand in a mold made of stiff sand, given a glaze, and hardened in fire. (B) GOLD The Egyptians had plenty of gold, mostly from mines in Nubia. Jewellery and gold-plated objects were made. Statues and even a king's coffin were made of solid gold. (C) SANDALS The shoemaker's trade was simple, because the only shoes people wore were sandals, made of leather or papyrus reed. Usually they went barefoot. (D) WOOD CARVING This man is making a wooden animal. Most woodworking tools, such as saws and chisels, have not changed much since.
CraftsmenNew jobs available for talented craftsmen Surplus food Production allows for their wages to be paid New Products and Skills Develop Some with medical application!
A New Hierarchy Develops Agricultural and Trading opportunities allow New Hierarchy to be formed Elite/Aristocracy
Pay wages to others to work for them Life of leisure Free time to think New ideas New Inventions New Skills
Hieroglyphics Development of Writing Papyrus Pictographs Allows ideas to be transferred Can spread throughout Egypt Can be passed down through generations
Sophisticated Civilisation(A) RAISING STONE BLOCKS One of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes. (B) SUPERVISORS Officials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen. (C) SHAPING THE STONE Each stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place. (D) ACCIDENTS Many workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks.
Large Scale projects were now feasible Planning Writing and Mathematics New Tools Public Works projects
Towns and Cities Develop Craftsmen, traders, labourers find it easier and more convenient to live in towns and cities. Urban economy and lifestyle develops Medical threats to an urban population?
Hygienic Lifestyle Personal Hygiene Very important
Public Works allow for Drain Systems Water Delivery systems Bathing
Who were the Medical Care Givers?It is seven days from yesterday since I saw my love, And Sickness has crept over me, My limbs have become heavy, I cannot feel my own body. If the Master-Physicians come to me I gain no comfort from their remedies. And the priest-magicians have no cures, My sickness is not diagnosed. My love is better by far for me than any remedies. She is more important than all the books of medicine. Egyptian Love Poem c1500 BC
Religion Very Important Temples Priests Alternative medical care from master physicians
Charms Still used extensively
Imphotep Master Physicians can be afforded by the very wealthy
Pharoah Zozers Physician Adviser Architect on some Pyramids Healer
c2600 BC Becomes God of Medicine For Greeks and Egyptians c500 BC
The Nile Theory Attempt to Explain how the Body works and why people get sick Related to their Natural Environment and their understanding of how the world works River Nile Mixture of Blood and Air Flows from the centre to extremeties Caused by blockages of the channels Caused by rotting food Letting off gases Prevents normal flow
A Rational Explanation
Ebers and Smith Papyri Smith Papyrus C1700 BC (but refers to Imphoteps era) Surgical treatments for wounds
Ebers Papyrus C1500 BC 110 Pages Treatments for diseases Herbal Remedies Remedies used by Gods
Medical Kit 1) knives; (2) drill; (3) saw; (4) forceps or pincers; (5) censer; (6) hooks; (7) bags tied with string; (8, 10) beaked vessel; (11) vase with burning incense; (12) Horus eyes; (13) scales; (14) pot with flowers of Upper and Lower Egypt; (15) pot on pedestal; (16) graduated cubit or papyrus scroll without side knot (or a case holding reed scalpels); (17) shears; (18) spoons.
The Afterlife? Elaborate death ritual Embalming Procedure Directed by Priests
Uses sophisticated tools and techniques HOWEVER It is not a medical procedure He is already dead!
MummificationExcessive respect for the Dead body
(A) ANUBIS The priest in charge of the mummification wore the mask of Anubis (the god of the dead). (B) INCENSE A priest stands by, holding sweet-smelling incense. (C) WRAPPING THE BODY The body, or mummy, was wrapped in layers of linen before being placed in the coffin. (D) NATRON Natron, a kind of soda, was placed in the body to dry it out before it was wrapped in linen. (E) SOAKING THE BANDAGES Sometimes, linen strips were soaked in plaster so they would harden when dry.
Will hinder medical developments for many years Sacred Body does not allow for exploration or experimentation. Dissection Forbidden
Legacy of Egypt Greece and Rome conquer Egypt Greece and Rome respect many of the Egyptian ideas on medicine Egyptian Physicians in demand in Ancient Greece Role of Alexandria
What was new in Egyptian Medicine?(compared to Prehistoric Medicine)
What was the same?
What was new in Egyptian Medicine?(compared to Prehistoric Medicine)
What was the same?Herbal remedies Role of Gods and Spirits Little understanding of internal workings of body No idea what actually caused diseases Paid for medical care
Master Physicians Attempt to explain diseases (Nile Theory) Can identify parts of the body Imported new herbs from other civilisations Metal Instruments Some Public Health measures Hygiene identified
Marking Scheme Level 0 General or simplistic Answer (1 Mark)
Write a simple paragraph explaining how the following affected medicine Wealth Trade Writing Religion The Nile and Farming Which is the most important of the 5?
Level 1 Specifically answers question with relevant example or explanation (2 3 Marks)
Level 2 Sophisticated answer that shows an understanding of the complex forces involved. Good use of relevant examples (4 5 Marks)
List all the kinds of healers mentioned sources 1 to 5 on page 18 Answer questions 1, 5, 6 and 7 on pages 20/21 Homework Activity on page 21 Design an advertisement for one of the treatments described on pages 20/21