T3.1-P28 Status of Digital Infrasound Sensors Developed by the NCPA NCPA · PDF file...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    23-Mar-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of T3.1-P28 Status of Digital Infrasound Sensors Developed by the NCPA NCPA · PDF file...

  • NCPA Atmospheric

    Acoustics

    T3.1-P28 Status of Digital Infrasound Sensors Developed by the NCPA Carrick Talmadge, The University of Mississippi

    National Center for Physical Acoustics, Oxford, MS

    higher frequencies strongly attenuated, phase becomes incoherent

    very flat amplitude/phase response below 500 Hz–ideal for long-distance sensing

    NCPA Analog Sensors

    • Electronics front end that attenuates low-frequency noise (3-pole system).

    • Seismic sensitivity 1 m/s2 less than 0.04 Pa equivalent signal (comparable to B&K ½ mikes) in seismically decoupled version.highly ruggedized

    • 0.01 Hz- 500 Hz operating range, sensitivity = 150 mV/ Pa

    • 750 mW power consumption, ±15 V differential

    • Can drive very long cable lengths (at least 500-m)

    NCPA Digital Sensors left: near field blast sensor ~ 55,000 Pa maximum transducible signal (0.045 mV/Pa)

    right: far-field porous hose ~100 Pa maximum transducible signal (25 mV/Pa

    • Similar performance features to the analog sensor (robustness, seismic decoupling, etc)

    •  4 W power consumption

    •  Storage capacity 8 GB (expandable to 64 GB)

    •  Programmable sampling rates 31.25-1000 sps

    •  On sensor GPS

    •  Built-in 802.11/b WIFI (can be disabled)

    •  Optional USB and Ethernet ports

    Porous hose (digital) installation High-frequency sensor under 45” (115 cm) diameter foam dome.

    First generation digital sensors ready for deployment.

    US Array-style sensor.

    Measured vs Modeled Response

    0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 5

    7

    10

    20

    30

    Frequency [Hz]

    Se ns

    iti vi

    ty [m

    V/ Pa

    ]

    Median of measured responses Modeled responses

    The low-frequency portion of the sensor transfer function is well understood. (Shown is the transfer function for a lower-gain sensor).

    Relative Calibration of NCPA Sensors

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

    Sensor Number [arb]

    R el

    at iv

    e Se

    ns iti

    vi ty

    [P er

    ce nt

    ]

    Show are the test results for 68 digital sensors. The standard deviation of the relative sensitivity is 3.5%.

    Electronic Noise Floor

    0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102

    Frequency [Hz]

    "E le

    ct ro

    ni c

    N oi

    se F

    lo or

    " [ Pa

    2 / H

    z] Bowman Model Chaparral 50 (published noise floor) MB2000 (published noise floor) NCPA Sensor (true noise floor)

    Thermal Sensitivity

    These results are for sensors that were chilled to 4°C, then placed in a calibration chamber. Their sensitivities were then tracked as a function of time. The actual temperature change over the measurement period was approximately 8°C.

    Two-Tone Linearity Measurements

    Comparison of two-tone measurements (two speakers) between different sensor types.

    Seismic Sensitivity

    Comparison of noise floors for sealed sensors in a sealed tank. Above 5 Hz, the MB2000 is dominated by seismic noise.

    Challenges of Atmospheric Infrasound • Noise associated with atmospheric turbulence ( wind noise ), especially at frequencies below 0.1 Hz. Conventionally this is solved by adding large wind-noise filters to sensors. The cost of the

    filters typically far exceeds the cost of the infrasound sensor itself.

    • Environmental exposure is a hazard to current, rather delicate microphones, so vaults are constructed to stablize temperature and protect the instrument from environmental exposure.

    Applications of Infrasound Sensors • monitoring potential atmospheric nuclear tests (CTBT applications)

    • natural hazard detection of volcanos, tornados, tsunamis

    • monitoring natural phenomena such as hurricanes and bolides

    This 4-element design reduces effects of temperature gradients across sensors, an important noise source for measurements outside of vaults.

    An 8-element configuration can be used that cancels temperature gradients and signals associated with seismic motion.

    Piezoceramic Sensors •  Resonant Frequency - 3

    kHz •  Sensitivity - 1 to 4 mV/Pa •  Temperature

    Compensation –  Reverse bimorphs –  Insulated enclosures,

    small openings •  Charge Generating

    –  Must operate into a high impendence

    Commercial Sensors (Hyperion Technology Group)

    Commercial Versions of NCPA Analog Sensor (left) and Digital Sensor (Right).

    Dual Channel Sensor (Pressure + Acceleration)

    The Hyperion Model 5300 analog sensor has dual output channels for pressure and acceleration. This sensor is based on an NCPA design. The maximum transducible acceleration for configuration used for these measurements is ±25 m/s2 and the maximum transducible pressure is ±100 Pa.

    High Amplitude (Blast Wave) Measurements

    Two short-range shock wave measurements using a “blast-wave” sensor. The Hyperion digital sensor can also produce dual

    channel output. Unlike the NCPA sensor, it directly tranduces two sensor plates (one oriented upwards, and one downwards). In principle the gains for the pressure and acceleration channels can be decoupled with this design.

    Future Development: Reciprocal Calibration

    Frequency Response of the NCPA Sensors

    10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 0.5 1 2

    5 10 20

    50 100 200

    Frequency [Hz]

    Se ns

    itiv ity

    [m V/

    Pa ]

    Current Generation Reference Sensor Original Design

    Shown here are nominal responses for analog sensors. Digital sensors have a sensitivity 1/6 of this, because the digitizer reference voltage is ±2.5 V.