Synchrotron Radiation (SR) - Aarhus 2015-11-12¢  Synchrotron radiation Wigglers,...

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Transcript of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) - Aarhus 2015-11-12¢  Synchrotron radiation Wigglers,...

  • 12-11-2015

    1

    Accelerator Physics:

    Synchrotron radiation

    Wigglers, Undulators

    Monochromators

    Lecture 4a

    Søren Pape Møller – ISA

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR)

    • Acceleration of charged particles

    – Emission of EM radiation

    – In accelerators: Synchrotron Radiation

    • Significance

    – Effect on particle/accelerator

    – Characterization and use of SR

    • Literature

    – Chap. 2 + 8 in “Wille”

  • 12-11-2015

    2

    General Electric synchrotron accelerator built in 1946,

    the origin of the discovery of synchrotron radiation from

    70 MeV electrons.

    The arrow indicates the evidence of “arcing”.

    SR fra ASTRID

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchrotron_accelerator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_arc

  • 12-11-2015

    3

    Udsendelse af synkrotron

    stråling

    Synkrotronstråling fra ASTRID

    Fotonenergi (eV)

    Bølgelængde (nm)

    Synkrotronstråling fra ASTRID

    Sollys

    Synligt lys

    0.1 10 1000 100000

    0.01 1 100 10000

  • 12-11-2015

    4

    Emission of Synchrotron Radiation

    • Present lecture, see “Wille” – Details, see Jackson – “Classical Electrodynamics”

    – Here: Mainly key physical elements

    • Acceleration of charged particles EM radiation

    • Lamor: Total power v

  • 12-11-2015

    5

    Linear acceleration

    • Accelerator energy gain: dE/dx ≈ 15 MeV/m

    – Ratio between energy lost and gain:

    – h = 5 * 10-14 (for v ≈ c)

    – Negligible

  • 12-11-2015

    6

    Circular accelerators

    • In practice: Only SR from electrons!

    v v

     dt

    d

    Energy loss per turn

    [m]

    [GeV] 5.88

    2 ][

    4

    R

    E

    c

    R PdtPkeVE ss  

    http://www.google.dk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAcQjRxqFQoTCJ7M-4jewcgCFQLdLAodSCIGHw&url=http://users-phys.au.dk/philip/pictures/physicsfigures/node17.html&psig=AFQjCNHNSJ8OVGkPHqtVP1BDzjNHvVaedA&ust=1444904258068155

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    7

    Angular distribution of synchrotron

    radiation

    Spectrum of SR

    • Spectrum: Harmonics of frev

    • Characteristic/critical frequency

    • Divide power in ½

  • 12-11-2015

    8

    Synkrotronstråling

               GeVT

    864.1 nm GeVT665.0keV

    2

    2

    EB EB cc  

    0.01 0.1 1 10 1E10

    1E11

    1E12

    1E13

     c

    =358 eV

    ved 580 MeV

    og 1.6 T

    Universelt

    synkrotronstrålings

    spektrum

    p h

    o to

    n s /s

    /m ra

    d /0

    .1 %

    B W

    /G e

    V

    Energy/ c

    ASTRID og synkrotronstråling

    Fotonenergi (eV)

    Bølgelængde (nm)

    In te

    n si

    te t

    Synkrotronstråling fra ASTRID

    Sollys

    Synligt lys

    0.1101000100000

    0.01 1 100 10000

    c

    𝜀𝑐[𝑒𝑉] = 665𝐸 2 𝐺𝑒𝑉 𝐵[𝑇]

    𝜃 ≈ 1/𝛾 ≈ 1𝑚𝑟𝑎𝑑

    𝛾 = 1/ 1 − 𝛽2

  • 12-11-2015

    9

    E.g. ASTRID (580 MeV)

    Vertical angular distribution

    Polarization

    _____ og -----

         GeVT665.0keV 2EBc 

    Spectral Brightness

    1E+11

    1E+12

    1E+13

    1E+14

    1E+15

    1E+16

    1E+17

    0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 Photon Energy (keV)

    P h

    /s *m

    m ^

    2 *m

    ra d

    ^ 2

    *0 .1

    B W

    Undulator, ASTRID2

    Undulator

    2T 12 pol wiggler, ASTRID2

    Bend, ASTRID1

    Bend ASTRID2

    ASTRID2

    • Horizontal

    emittance [nm]

    – ASTRID2:12.1

    – ASTRID: 140

    • Diffraction limit:

    http://www.google.dk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAcQjRxqFQoTCOnDsM_uwcgCFWcycgodRGgFlw&url=http://xdb.lbl.gov/Section2/Sec_2-1.html&psig=AFQjCNHH8i-G_E1iwED7DbUKInPacbIowg&ust=1444906027207738

  • 12-11-2015

    10

    ASTRID/2 beamstørrelse

    2mm

    0.1mm

    ASTRID (140 nm)

    0.2mm

    0.01mm

    ASTRID2 (10 nm)

    Diffraktionsbegrænset i V og delvist i H  

    4'  RR

    Synkrotron stråling : Effekt

    Energitab/omgang : U[keV] = 88.5*E4[GeV4]/r[m]

    Udstrålet effekt: P[kW] = U[keV]*I[A]

    E [GeV] B [T] c [keV] U [keV] P [kW]

    ASTRID 0.100 0.276 0.002 0.007 0.001

    ASTRID 0.580 1.6 0.36 8.3 1.7

    ESRF 6 0.86 20.7 4922 1000

    LEP 100 0.1 665 2950000 29000

    I praksis, max 100 GeV for elektron synkrotron -> linear accelerator

    200 mA

  • 12-11-2015

    11

    Light sources in Europe Name Country Website

    Institute for Storage Ring Facilities Denmark http://www.isa.au.dk/

    European Synchrotron Radiation

    Facility France http://www.esrf.eu

    SOLEIL France http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/

    Angstromquelle Karlsruhe - ANKA Germany http://anka.kit.edu

    BESSY II - Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin Germany http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/

    Dortmund Electron Storage Ring

    Facility Germany http://www.delta.tu-dortmund.de/

    ELSA - Electron Stretcher Accelerator Germany http://www-elsa.physik.uni-

    bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html

    Metrology Light Source Germany http://www.ptb.de/mls/

    PETRA III at DESY Germany http://photon-science.desy.de

    DAFNE Italy http://web.infn.it/Dafne_Light/

    Elettra Synchrotron Light Laboratory Italy http://www.elettra.eu

    Dubna Electron Synchrotron Russia http://wwwinfo.jinr.ru/delsy/

    Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation

    Source Russia http://www.nrcki.ru/e/engl.html

    TNK Russia http://www.niifp.ru/page/sinhrotron

    ALBA Spain http://www.cells.es/

    MAX IV Laboratory Sweden http://www.maxlab.lu.se/

    Swiss Light Source Switzerland http://www.psi.ch/sls/

    Diamond Light Source United Kingdom http://www.diamond.ac.uk/

    ESRF – MAX IV

    http://www.lightsources.org/regions/europe?field_region_list_value=All&order=title&sort=asc http://www.lightsources.org/regions/europe?field_region_list_value=All&order=field_country&sort=asc http://www.lightsources.org/facility/isa http://www.isa.au.dk/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/esrf http://www.lightsources.org/facility/esrf http://www.esrf.eu/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/soleil http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/ http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/ http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/anka http://www.lightsources.org/facility/anka http://www.lightsources.org/facility/anka http://www.lightsources.org/facility/anka http://anka.kit.edu/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/hzb-helmholtz-zentrum-berlin http://www.lightsources.org/facility/hzb-helmholtz-zentrum-berlin http://www.lightsources.org/facility/hzb-helmholtz-zentrum-berlin http://www.lightsources.org/facility/hzb-helmholtz-zentrum-berlin http://www.lightsources.org/facility/hzb-helmholtz-zentrum-berlin http://www.lightsources.org/facility/hzb-helmholtz-zentrum-berlin http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/ http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/ http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/delta http://www.lightsources.org/facility/delta http://www.delta.tu-dortmund.de/ http://www.delta.tu-dortmund.de/ http://www.delta.tu-dortmund.de/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/elsa http://www.lightsources.org/facility/elsa http://www.lightsources.org/facility/elsa http://www.lightsources.org/facility/elsa http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html http://www.lightsources.org/facility/mls http://www.ptb.de/mls/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/petra_iii http://photon-science.desy.de/ http://photon-science.desy.de/ http://photon-science.desy.de/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/dafne http://web.infn.it/Dafne_Light/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/elettra http://www.elettra.eu/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/delsy http://wwwinfo.jinr.ru/delsy/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/ksrs http://www.lightsources.org/facility/ksrs http://www.nrcki.ru/e/engl.html http://www.lightsources.org/facility/tnk http://www.niifp.ru/page/sinhrotron http://www.lightsources.org/facility/alba http://www.cells.es/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/maxiv http://www.maxlab.lu.se/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/sls http://www.psi.ch/sls/ http://www.lightsources.org/facility/diamond http://www.diamond.ac.uk/

  • 12-11-2015

    12

    Storage rings for SR

    • SR – unique broad spectrum!