Swimming & Locomotion

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Swimming & Locomotion. Major types of locomotion in fishes. Walking frogfishes Crawling sea robins Swimming most fishes. Antennariidae warty frogfish Antennarius maculatus. The swimming mechanism. Muscles Propulsive waves. Swimming modes. Body musculature. Fin musculature. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Swimming & Locomotion

  • Swimming & Locomotion

  • Major types of locomotion in fishes Walking frogfishes Crawling sea robins Swimmingmost fishes

  • Antennariidaewarty frogfishAntennariusmaculatus

  • The swimming mechanismMusclesPropulsive waves

  • Swimming modesBody musculatureFin musculature

  • Swimming modes (body musculature)

  • Swimmingmodes

  • Swimming examplesThunniform Carangiform swimming

    Labriform swimming

  • Musculature myotomes

  • Epiaxial or dorsalmuscleshypaxial or ventralmusclesRed

  • Distribution of red muscle

  • Distribution of red muscleEctothermfishesBluefin tunaSkipjack tunaMako sharkRed muscle

  • Propulsive waveProgressive tailward passagePush forceReactive forceForward thrust componentLift or slippage component


  • Progressive swimming undulation wave

  • Thrust - DragGravity - Lift + BuoyancySwimming Forces

  • Lift ForceStatic liftSwim bladderLipids / OilsDynamic LiftPectoral fin rotationPectoral hydrofoil shape

  • Drag forces IFrictional or Viscous DragBoundary layer: non-moving water layer that creates friction with surrounding waterNot speed relatedTo reduce frictional drag:MucousReduction surface areaCtenoid scalesPlacoid scales

  • Frictional Drag (Flow separation)

  • Placoid scalesCtenoid scales

  • Drag forces IIPressure or Inertial DragCaused by pressure differencesDrag increases with speedTo reduce pressure drag:Streamline shapeWidth-length ratio = 0.25Thickest cross-section 2/5 from mouthLong and narrow wing-like pectoral fins for liftBody depressions for retracting paired & median fins

  • Pressure and frictional drag

  • High speed streamlined fishes

  • Caudal keel

  • ScombridaeBigeye tunaThunnus obesus Caudal fin shapes high aspect ratio (thunniform swimming)

  • CarangidaeJacksCaranx melampygusCaudal fin shapes high/medium aspect ratio (carangiform swimming)

  • SerranidaeNassau grouperEpinephelus striatusCaudal fin shapes low aspect ratio (subcarangiform swimming)

  • EsocidaeNorthern pikeEsox luciusCaudal fin shapes low aspect ratio (subcarangiform swimming)