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Sustainable Urban Development NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK CONTRACT COMMISSION 2007 Lot Nr 4 Contract Nr 2010/253101 13 th February 2012 Slide 2 presentation outline overview of the revision process and assessing existing and new text; determining relevance of information to specifics required of the TORs; determining the best way to present information and for whom; recognising lessons learnt from first revision (original) text; introducing new text ; incorporating new with old texts and ensuring readability ; Slide 3 context In 2002, EC finalised a draft and UN-HABITAT successfully tested it in Somalia. Consultative Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Development A Strategic Approach Slide 4 key tasks Update the references to the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action and other international agreements on cooperation for development; Ensure continuity, integrity and coherence with current procedures and EC materials (e.g.: on Governance, Labour Intensive Employment approaches, etc.); Integrate new and emerging information, practices and resources on climate change; Slide 5 key tasks (contd) Incorporate approaches and responses to disaster risk reduction; Ensure materials are formatted and formulated in a manner that is useable, understandable and practical; Format outputs so that they may be widely disseminated and easily accessible by electronic means and transferable to other media as appropriate and necessary; Propose a dissemination strategy to ensure broader usership and wider acceptability and awareness of the work and contents; Slide 6 principles for updating the new perspectives are about: Accepting the urbanisation process ; Understanding what is happening; Identifying what is working; Finding out how it is working; Mapping who is doing what and why ; And figuring out how we can do it better. Slide 7 thereby enabling the reader to Cite or measure new forms of innovation in urban development or sustainability; Assess overall innovation and progress in urban performance; Improve options for urban comparability at national, regional and international levels; and Measure progress and changes over time. Slide 8 how to achieve this? An overview of the existing Guidelines and identification of areas for improvement and Revision; An initial review of the existing documents and technical areas defined in the ToR; A secondary level screening of new and emerging policies and recommendations from the broader academic, research, policy-making and think-tank institutions who have had a role in shaping and forming donor policies or urban development policies and initiatives; Slide 9 how to achieve this? A tertiary and preliminary review of current and existing literature; An analysis of appropriate and relevant best practices in sustainable urban development emerging from the field; Defining the areas of improvement in the existing Guidelines, and determining how the initial quantitative and qualitative data, inputs, information and approaches can (or should) fit into the Revision; Slide 10 how to achieve this? A critical appraisal of interviews, consultations, literature review and other information gathered to determine what is relevant and necessary for the final Review document; Approaches to synthesising evidence and experience for inclusion into the final Revision; Undertaking a meta-analysis to ensure only relevant and substantiated information and analysis is included in the Revision; Project managing and quality assuring the draft final Revision by circulating the document to a trusted and respected peer review panel; Slide 11 how to achieve this? Workshopping the draft final product to solicit options for strengthening and improving the final draft; Considering changes to the final draft; Issuing the final version of the Revisions. Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 why focus on the urban poor? Over the past 25 years, the urban growth rate in the developing world was 3 times higher than the rural growth rate. Over the next 25 years, the urban growth rate will be 25 times higher than rural growth rate. Rural and urban development are interdependent. Slide 20 In the next 15 years, many cities in Africa and Asia will nearly DOUBLE in population. Slide 21 GLOBAL POPULATION RURAL/URBAN 1970 RURAL 63% URBAN 37% 20002030 RURAL 53% URBAN 47% RURAL 40% URBAN 60% the growth of cities Slide 22 2007 For the first time in human history the majority of humans live in cities This process will not stop 90% of all new population growth will be in cities It represents about 70 million people until 2030 equivalent to 7 news megacities per year Most of new urban growth will be in small and intermediate cities (< 5 million people) Less Developed Countries Urban areas will grow at 3 % per annum, rural areas at 0,1 % Slide 23 Following the trend in 2001 all but 4 of the worlds largest cities will most likely be in developing countries, (ex. Mexico City 18.1 million, Mumbai 18.1 million, Sao Paolo 17.8 million, Shanghai 17 million and Lagos 13.1 million.) -For example, Lagos will become the worlds largest city by 2020 with over 20 million people The Latin American and Caribbean region is presently highly urbanized: 75 % of its population now lives in cities Slide 24 Slide 25 potential benefits of cities Offer a large number of services to as many people as possible High economic growth Political evolution Social change Technical, Scientific and Cultural progress Access to education, sanitation and health Slide 26 some costs: pollution, climate change an unsustainable environment 80 % of carbon emissions emanate from cities. Economic growth and increasing scale and intensity of urbanization especially in the developing world. China = 2 nd largest polluter = 16 most polluted cities in the world. Slide 27 some costs: disaster prone cities Increasing frequency of climate change driven natural disasters : tropical cyclones, flooding, landslides, etc 21 cities (of more than 8 millions of populations in 2015) located in vulnerable coastal zones Informal settlements located on high-risk areas : steep hill slopes, deep gullies, flood-prone areas Slide 28 some costs: divided cities Poverty Plus Cities: Engines of growth while fostering the extent and intensity of exclusion, often both at the same time. Failed urbanization waste of human capital and potential in the city Cities need to be inclusive places for all Slide 29 some costs: divided cities 3 billion in cities - 1 billion in slums. Majority of slum dwellers - less than $1 per day. Lack of safe drinking water hours spent fetching water and young girls forgoing education. No access to sanitation in Kibera, Nairobi, typically over 300 people share 1 toilet. No access to land in Nairobi 80 % of the population live on 5 % of the land. Forced evictions Operation Murambatsvina. Slide 30 responding to slums Slide 31 32 % increase of the slum population in 2001 to about 41 % in 2030 About 565 million new housing units needed Urban population (2003)3,043,934,680 Estimated urban population (2030)4,944,679,063 Additional urban population 2003-20301,900,744,383 Population living in slums (2001)923,986,000 Additional urban population 2003-20301,900,744,383 People needing housing and urban services by 2030 2,824,730,383 Slide 32 typical responses Confusion or denial Managed urbanization = strong economy (China). Strong relationship between per capita GDP and urbanization, with qualified exception of Africa State-centric development policies Rural development is still the theme of many developing country strategies. The deserving poor live in rural areas. Failure to address the growth of slums everywhere contradictions of the World Class City Failure to address urban informality Slide 33 key messages the positive role of urbanisation within cities for economic development and cultural changes; the need to resolve and consider how cities can better respond to urban poverty and other social and economic inequities; scalability of approaches and technologies, replicability of best practice and cost effectiveness in managing interventions at the regional and local level; Slide 34 key messages appropriate, on-plot as well as bulk infrastructure services, their affordability and scaling of their distribution based on current needs and projected future requirements; t the need to increase resilience to disasters and adaptation of strategies and technologies which enable governments, groups and households to deal with climatic variability; Slide 35 key messages the territorial dimension of institutional reforms through decentralisation and by supporting local governments ability to plan, manage, finance and maintain programmes, policies and capital investments for the benefit of their residents; Slide 36 key messages the fight against poverty via cross- cutting issues in relation to urban development: (health / environment / gender and youth / good governance). Slide 37 and finally Urbanization is inevitable but its consequences are not we need to address the solutions urgently Stronger political commitment from both donors and recipients need for more balanced urban/ rural focus Urgent policies to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in cities Need to rethink the policy focus Slide 38