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  • 1

    Sustainable Fishery Management lessons from Japanese management system

    Takashi Matsuishi At SERD, AIT, Thailand 24Feb-14Mar, 2014

  • Japanese Fisheries Management

    2

    Top Down Control

    TAC management (7 species)

    TAE management (9 sp)

    Fishery Rights and Licensing (All fishery / fisher)

    Bottom up Control

    Community Based Fishery Management

    Fishery Cooperative Associations (Almost all)

    Fishers Group

    Expansion and Education

    Fishery Agency (ABC for 44 species 83 stocks )

    Local Government

  • 3

    TAC and ABC Regulation Outline

    Data collection by Prefectural Fishery Experimental

    Centres and Fisheries Research Agency (FRA)

    Stock assessment by FRA and determine the

    Allowable Biological Catch (ABC)

    Determine the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) by

    Fishery Agency of Japan , and distribute the

    quota to fisheries

  • 4

    Data Collection

    Target stocks

    44 species 83 stocks (2009)

    Coastal stocks (excluding International Stocks such as

    salmon, tunas etc)

    Fisheries Experimental Centre

    46 of 47 prefectures has fisheries research centres

    They collect catch statistics, catch fish composition (length,

    age, sex ratio, maturity etc)

  • 5

    Stock Assessment Sheet

    Basic biology and ecology of the stock

    Current stock and fisheries status

    Population Estimation Virtual Population Analysis

    Acoustic Survey Analysis etc.

    Prediction of the future population dynamics

    Allowable Biological Catch ABC

    Researchers in Universities also make advices for determining the ABC

  • 6

    ABC

    ABC is calculated following the guideline of the stock

    assessment made by FRA.

    ABClimit, ABCtarget and other options are indicated.

    ABClimit: Biological upper limit of catch

    ABCtarget: Biologically preferable catch

    Other options: Following Fcurrent, Fsim etc.

  • 7

    Total Allowable Catch

    Target stocks: 8 species 19 stocks

    Determined based on ABC taking into account the

    socio-economic considerations

    TAC sometimes exceeds ABClimit

    Yearly total catch of the species should be under TAC,

    and fishery will be stopped by orders of government

    when the total catch reaches to TAC.

  • 8

    ABC and TAC

    ABC: Allowable Biological Catch

    Recommended maximum catch by scientist

    For 44 species

    TAC: Total Allowable Catch

    Set by Nation

    Based on ABC

    Consider the socio-economic aspect

    For 8 very important species

  • 9

    Species under TAC regulation

    (2009)

    http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests21/index.html

    http://abchan.job.affrc.go.jp/digests21/index.html

  • 10

    Sardine

    Sardinops melanostictus

    Pacific Stock

    Sea of Japan Stock

    Pacific Stock Sea of Japan Stock

  • 11

    Horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus

    Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock

    Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock

  • 12

    Common Mackerel Scomber japonicus

    Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock

    Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock

  • 13

    Blue Mackerel Scomber australasicus

    Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock

    Pacific Stock Tsushima Stock

  • 14

    Pacific saury Cololabis saira

  • 15

    Walleye Pollock Theragra chalcogramma

    Pacific Stock Sea of Japan Stock

    Pacific Stock Sea of Japan Stock

  • 16

    Snow crab Chionoecetes opilio

    Pacific Stock Sea of Japan A Stock

    Pacific Stock Sea of Japan A Stock

  • 17

    Japanese flying squid Todarodes pacificus

    Winter spawning population Autumn spawning population

    Winter pop. Autumn pop.

  • ABC for Sardine

    18

  • 19

    Sardine Sardinops melanostictus

    20cm at age 4

    Very common in 1980s but disappeared from latter

    1990s

  • 20

    Catch of Sardine in Japan

    Ca

    tch

    (1

    00

    0t)

  • 21

    Catch of Sardine in Japan (cont.)

    Ca

    tch

    (1

    00

    0t)

  • 22

    Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010)

    Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010)

    Predicted Population(2011)

    Predicted Population Dynamics

    Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation

    Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch

    Virtual Population Analysis

  • 23

    Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010)

    Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010)

    Predicted Population(2011)

    Predicted Population Dynamics

    Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation

    Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch

    Virtual Population Analysis

  • Catch at age

    24

    Catc

    h a

    t age(1

    E9)

    Year

  • 25

    Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010)

    Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010)

    Predicted Population(2011)

    Predicted Population Dynamics

    Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation

    Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch

    Virtual Population Analysis

  • 26

    Estimated Biomass (B) and

    Exploitation Ratio (E)

    Bio

    ma

    ss (

    10

    00

    t)

    Ex

    plo

    ita

    tio

    n R

    ate

    (%

    )

    B E

  • 27

    Estimated Biomass (B) and

    Exploitation Ratio (E) cont.

    Bio

    ma

    ss (

    10

    00

    t)

    Ex

    plo

    ita

    tio

    n R

    ate

    (%

    ) B E

  • 28

    Stock Recruitment Relationship

    Re

    cru

    itm

    en

    t (m

    illi

    on

    )

    SSB (1000t)

  • 29

    Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010)

    Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010)

    Predicted Population(2011)

    Predicted Population Dynamics

    Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation

    Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch

    Virtual Population Analysis

  • 30

    Example of a prediction

    in future population dynamics

    Ca

    tch

    (1

    00

    0t)

    90%tile

    median

    10%tile

  • 31

    Procedure of Stock Assessment Catch at Age(1976-2010)

    Estimated Population at Age(1976-2010) Estimated Fishing Mortality(1976-2010)

    Predicted Population(2011)

    Predicted Population Dynamics

    Predicted Recruitment Assumed Fishing Operation

    Allowable Biological Catch Total Allowable Catch

    Virtual Population Analysis

  • 32

    Allowable Biological Catch

    ABC is predicted catch in the fishing mortality that

    the population is sustainable.

    Scenarios F/Fcur E C2015 Aver. C2011-

    2015

    Prob.

    B>Blimit

    Prob.

    SSB>SSB

    cur

    ABC

    2012

    Current Fisheries 1.0 18% 116-826Kt 265Kt 100% 84% 135Kt

    SSB rehabilitation 1.75 29% 91-765Kt 296Kt 71% 45% 210Kt

    Keep current SSB 2.06 32% 77-614Kt 283Kt 58% 33% 236Kt

  • 33

    Total Allowable Catch TAC

    TAC was also decided based on ABC by Fisheries Agency

    Japan with taking into account economical and social

    considerations.

    Fishing operation will be stopped when the cumulative

    landing exceed the TAC.

  • TAC, ABC, and Catch of Sardine

    34

  • 35

    Data used in this scheme

    Catch statistics for all region and all fisheries for very

    long time.

    Result of age determination for every year from large

    sampling work.

    Real time monitoring of the landing in every ports to

    know the achievement of the cumulative catch to TAC.

  • 36

    Walleye Pollock

    Sea of Japan Stock

  • 37

    Walleye Pollock

    Sea of Japan Stock

    One of the most

    important fisheries

    resources in Japan

    Mainly for Roe (egg)

    products and Fish Cake

    (Surimi)

    Korean eat it as hot-pot

    food (Chige)

    http://www.marusui.co.jp/shop/38_9.html

    http://www.gyoren.or.jp/melma/041120mag_g.html

    http://wpedia.search.goo.ne.jp/

    http://www.marusui.co.jp/shop/38_9.htmlhttp://www.gyoren.or.jp/melma/041120mag_g.htmlhttp://wpedia.search.goo.ne.jp/

  • 38

    Data Collection

    Widely sampled and aged

    Acoustic Survey

    Interview to Fishers

    Virtual Population Analysis

    with Tuning

  • 39

    Catch of Walleye Pollock (JS) C

    atc

    h in

    1000t

    Year

    Korea

    Main land

    Gillnet

    Trawler

  • 40

    Reproduction Rate

  • 41

    Result of Simulation

    Predicted Catch Predicted Spawning Stock Biomass

  • 42

    Result of Stock Assessment

    Catch Prob.1 Prob.2

    Fcurrent F=0.57 21,900t 0.0% 85.1%

    Fsus F=0.26 10,400t 0.2% 0.7%

    ABC F=0.24 9,700t 0.4% 0.2%

    Frec10y F=0.02 900t 41.5% 0.0%

    Catch: Expected Catch in 2010

    Prob.1: Probability to recover Preferable Stock Level 140,000t in 2020

    Prob.2: Probability to fall to th