SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS AND CONNECTIVE ... ... by Raghunathan Srinivasan, M.S. Washington State...

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Transcript of SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS AND CONNECTIVE ... ... by Raghunathan Srinivasan, M.S. Washington State...

  • SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS AND CONNECTIVE

    COMPLEXITY METHOD FOR SELECTIVE

    DISASSEMBLY TIME PREDICTION

    By

    RAGHUNATHAN SRINIVASAN

    A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of

    the requirements for the degree of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY

    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    DECEMBER 2011

  • ii

    To the Faculty of Washington State University:

    The members of the Committee appointed to examine the thesis of

    RAGHUNATHAN SRINIVASAN, find it satisfactory and recommend that it be

    accepted.

    ______________________________

    Gaurav Ameta, Ph.D., Chair

    ______________________________

    Jitesh H. Panchal, Ph.D.

    ______________________________

    Uma Jayaram, Ph.D.

  • iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This work would not have been possible without the constant support and guidance of

    my mentor, Prof. Gaurav Ameta. I thank him profusely for providing me with the best

    environment to work. I am grateful to him for giving me the freedom to explore and the

    excellent opportunities to learn and grow as a researcher.

    I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Jitesh H. Panchal and Dr. Uma

    Jayaram for sparing their valuable time to interact with me and for sharing their inputs

    and feedback. I am grateful to them for accommodating my requests and deadlines.

    I would like to thank all the members of the Sustainable Product Lifecycle Design

    Lab and Collective Systems Lab at Washington State University. Thanks to He Huang,

    Martin Baker and Bryant Hawthrone – it was an enriching and learning experience

    working with you.

    I would like to specially thank the faculty and staff of the School of Mechanical and

    Materials Engineering for funding my education through a Teaching Assistantship. I also

    thank them for all their support and effort to make my academic life a pleasant and

    memorable one.

    I would like to thank my brother Raghavendiran Srinivasan who is the constant

    source of encouragement for all the work I do.

    Thanks to all my friends for supporting me all through these years.

    Last but not the least; I would like to thank my parents Jayalakshmi and Srinivasan

    who are the key to success in every stage of my life.

  • iv

    SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS AND CONNECTIVE COMPLEXITY

    METHOD FOR SELECTIVE DISASSEMBLY

    TIME PREDICTION

    Abstract

    by Raghunathan Srinivasan, M.S.

    Washington State University

    December 2011

    Chair: Gaurav Ameta

    The two main objective of this thesis are: 1) to develop a disassembly and

    selective disassembly time prediction methodology and, 2) to evaluate the use

    of environmental impacts of components in the selective disassembly time

    prediction method. Disassembly time is very critical as it impacts the planning

    and costs at the end of life of a product. Thus, disassembly time has direct

    effects on the decisions and activities related to recycle, reuse, remanufacture

    and disposal of a product.

    The disassembly time prediction method first utilizes the assumption that

    disassembly is the inverse of assembly and second uses the assembly time

    prediction method. The assembly time prediction method is based on the use

    of complexity metrics derived from assembly graph and bipartite graph of a

    product. The notion of selective disassembly implies disassembling a product

    in order to retrieve only a certain number of parts and not disassembling the

    other components. There could be many applications for selective disassembly

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    from disassembly for material recovery, parts reuse and remanufacturing to

    reduction in environmental impacts associated to disposing a hazardous

    component. The determination of selective disassembly time is based on

    recovering most material for recycling. The assembly graph for a product is

    re-organized to group together parts that are close and are of same material.

    The modified assembly graph is then used to compute the selective

    disassembly time. Although, the method developed targets material recovery

    for recycling, it can be used for parts recovery for reuse, remanufacturing or

    other such purposes.

    One of the widely used methodologies to assess the environmental impacts of

    a product is called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is applied to selective

    components of the case studies (i.e. standard toaster and the eco-friendly

    toaster) using SIMAPRO 7 to calculate the environmental impacts. The

    environmental impacts of the selected components can be further utilized for

    decision making and planning regarding selective disassembly.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... iii

    Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................ iv

    LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................................... viii

    LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................................... ix

    Chapter 1 - Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1

    1.1 Background ................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Product Life Cycle ........................................................................................................................ 1

    1.3 Design phase ................................................................................................................................. 3

    1.4 Raw material phase ....................................................................................................................... 3

    1.5 Life Cycle Assessment .................................................................................................................. 5

    1.6 Disassembly .................................................................................................................................. 6

    1.7 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................................ 8

    1.8 Outline........................................................................................................................................... 9

    Chapter 2 - Literature review ...................................................................................................................... 10

    2.1 Disassembly Modeling ...................................................................................................................... 11

    2.2 Assembly and Disassembly time estimation ..................................................................................... 12

    2.3 Life Cycle Assessment ...................................................................................................................... 13

    Chapter 3 – Life Cycle Assessment of the toasters based on selective components for recycling ............. 14

    3.1 Background ....................................................................................................................................... 14

    3.2 Disassembly and Selective disassembly ........................................................................................... 14

    3.3 Components investigated .................................................................................................................. 15

    3.4 Life Cycle of a Toaster ..................................................................................................................... 17

    3.5 Use Phase Energy Calculation .......................................................................................................... 18

    3.6 Impact Assessment Methodology ..................................................................................................... 20

    3.6.1 Using SIMAPRO ........................................................................................................................... 21

    Chapter 4 – Assembly Time calculation using Connective Complexity Matrices method ........................ 26

    4.1 Complexity design ............................................................................................................................ 26

    4.2 Complexity Metrics .......................................................................................................................... 26

    4.3 Methodology ..................................................................................................................................... 27

  • vii

    4.3.1 Assembly Graph ............