Survivors of a Military Suicide Death: Exploring Suicide Bereavement & Postvention Care

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Transcript of Survivors of a Military Suicide Death: Exploring Suicide Bereavement & Postvention Care

  • Slide 1
  • Survivors of a Military Suicide Death: Exploring Suicide Bereavement & Postvention Care
  • Slide 2
  • Every Suicide makes this statement: this far, and no further! ~Edwin S. Shneidman(1972)
  • Slide 3
  • The Problem of Suicide Suicide Global Perspective Suicide ranked as 10 th Leading Cause of DeathSuicide ranked as 10 th Leading Cause of Death Increase of 60% in last 45 yearsIncrease of 60% in last 45 years 15-44 year olds ranked as 3 rd Leading Cause of Death in all developed and developing countries.15-44 year olds ranked as 3 rd Leading Cause of Death in all developed and developing countries. 1 suicide/40 seconds = 2,700 deaths per day1 suicide/40 seconds = 2,700 deaths per day 1 million suicides/per year globally1 million suicides/per year globally Global Mortality Rate: 16 per100,000Global Mortality Rate: 16 per100,000 Countries of Eastern Europe and descendents (eg., Russia, Croatia, Poland, Slovenia, Germany) Highest RatesCountries of Eastern Europe and descendents (eg., Russia, Croatia, Poland, Slovenia, Germany) Highest Rates 20 Million individuals attempt suicide each year20 Million individuals attempt suicide each year
  • Slide 4
  • The Problem of Suicide Suicide U.S. Perspective Suicide ranked as 11 h Leading Cause of DeathSuicide ranked as 11 h Leading Cause of Death 2 nd Leading Cause 25-34 year olds2 nd Leading Cause 25-34 year olds 3 rd Leading Cause 15-24 year olds3 rd Leading Cause 15-24 year olds Highest Rates: 75 years old + 16 per 100,000Highest Rates: 75 years old + 16 per 100,000 34,598 individuals died by suicide 200734,598 individuals died by suicide 2007 1 suicide/15 minutes = 96 persons per day1 suicide/15 minutes = 96 persons per day Mortality Rate: 11.3 per 100,000Mortality Rate: 11.3 per 100,000 Men are 4x more likely then Women (79% Suicides)Men are 4x more likely then Women (79% Suicides) 376,000 recorded attempts in U.S. annually376,000 recorded attempts in U.S. annually American Indians and Native Alaskans age-adjusted death rates for suicide 190% higher then general population (14.3/100,000). Non-Hispanic Whites (13.5); Asian/Pacific Islanders (6.2); Hispanics (6.0); Non-Hispanic Blacks (5.1)American Indians and Native Alaskans age-adjusted death rates for suicide 190% higher then general population (14.3/100,000). Non-Hispanic Whites (13.5); Asian/Pacific Islanders (6.2); Hispanics (6.0); Non-Hispanic Blacks (5.1) Firearms are leading method/Hanging 2ndFirearms are leading method/Hanging 2nd
  • Slide 5
  • The Problem of Suicide Suicide Canada Perspective Mortality Rate: 11.1/100,000Mortality Rate: 11.1/100,000 10 th Leading Cause of Death in Canada10 th Leading Cause of Death in Canada 3,705 reported suicides per year in Canada3,705 reported suicides per year in Canada 10 Suicides per day10 Suicides per day Men are 3x more likely to complete then WomenMen are 3x more likely to complete then Women Number One Method: HangingNumber One Method: Hanging Number Two Method: FirearmsNumber Two Method: Firearmshttp://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/hlth66f-eng.htm
  • Slide 6
  • The Problem of Suicide Canadian Military Perspective Suicide Rates Across All Military Personnel http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/news-nouvelles/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?id=3799
  • Slide 7
  • The Problem of Suicide Suicide U.S. Military Perspective Since 2002, Rise in Suicide Rates Across All Service Branches Source: U.S. military branches (2001-09) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (latest figures through 2006) http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=127860466
  • Slide 8
  • The Problem of Suicide Suicide U.S. Military Perspective 2/3 of military suicides occur outside the war-zone.2/3 of military suicides occur outside the war-zone. Self-inflicted Gun Shot Wound Most Common Method, 41% Non-Military issued firearm.Self-inflicted Gun Shot Wound Most Common Method, 41% Non-Military issued firearm. Caucasian Males (17.4/100,000) ; Divorced (27.6); Under 25 (20.1); E1-E4 (20.1); GED (20.1); 36% documented mental health dx.Caucasian Males (17.4/100,000) ; Divorced (27.6); Under 25 (20.1); E1-E4 (20.1); GED (20.1); 36% documented mental health dx. 20% of 30,000 Suicide Deaths in U.S. are U.S. Veterans20% of 30,000 Suicide Deaths in U.S. are U.S. Veterans Source: http://www.health.mil/dhb/downloads/Suicide%20Prevention%20Task%20Force%20final%20report%208-23-10.pdf
  • Slide 9
  • Suicide Loss Survivors Perspective is Good to Know Who are they? Definition still unclear (Jordan, 2008)Definition still unclear (Jordan, 2008) Anyone impacted by a suicide : self-selection.Anyone impacted by a suicide : self-selection. Military: Families, Service Members, Friends, Military Community, Community-at- Large. Military: Families, Service Members, Friends, Military Community, Community-at- Large.
  • Slide 10
  • Suicide Loss Survivors The Ripple of Suicide How Many are there? For each person who loses their life to suicide, conservative estimates are that 6 persons close to the deceased are affected (AAS, 2010).For each person who loses their life to suicide, conservative estimates are that 6 persons close to the deceased are affected (AAS, 2010). 6 million new Suicide Loss Survivors Each Year Globally6 million new Suicide Loss Survivors Each Year Globally 200,000+ in the U.S. per year200,000+ in the U.S. per year Over 10 million in last 50 years Over 10 million in last 50 years According to these estimates there are over 2,000 new survivors bereaved by a military suicide in 2009 alone and 36,000 bereaved by a U.S. Veteran suicide. According to these estimates there are over 2,000 new survivors bereaved by a military suicide in 2009 alone and 36,000 bereaved by a U.S. Veteran suicide.
  • Slide 11
  • Suicide Loss Survivors Research The Need Despite large number of survivors with elevated risks, understudied and obscurely understood population.Despite large number of survivors with elevated risks, understudied and obscurely understood population. Little research about the impact of suicide on survivors and effective Postvention services exists.Little research about the impact of suicide on survivors and effective Postvention services exists. What is suicide Postvention?What is suicide Postvention? Postvention is Prevention for future generations Edwin Sheidman.Postvention is Prevention for future generations Edwin Sheidman. Primary suicide research has been in suicide risk and suicidal behavior (Prevention) but not in the context of Postvention.Primary suicide research has been in suicide risk and suicidal behavior (Prevention) but not in the context of Postvention.
  • Slide 12
  • Suicide Loss Survivors What is Known? Mixture of personal accounts, clinical observations and research.Mixture of personal accounts, clinical observations and research. Suicide Loss is a risk factor for suicide, little research into incidence and prevalence of suicidal behavior among those affected by a suicide loss.Suicide Loss is a risk factor for suicide, little research into incidence and prevalence of suicidal behavior among those affected by a suicide loss.
  • Slide 13
  • Exposure to Suicide Growing Body of Research Crosby & Sacks (2002) sample who knew someone who died by suicide in last year, (1.6x more likely) suicidal ideation; suicidal plans (2.9x); suicide attempts (3.5x).Crosby & Sacks (2002) sample who knew someone who died by suicide in last year, (1.6x more likely) suicidal ideation; suicidal plans (2.9x); suicide attempts (3.5x). Hedstrom, Liu & Nordvik (2008) studied workplace suicide (Sweden) found workplace survivors, 100 employees or less, (3.5-8.3x) to die by suicide importance of psychological propinquity.Hedstrom, Liu & Nordvik (2008) studied workplace suicide (Sweden) found workplace survivors, 100 employees or less, (3.5-8.3x) to die by suicide importance of psychological propinquity. Leo and Heller (2008), examined four large datasets, found evidence showing that exposure to non-familial suicide increases suicide risk in survivors, particularly young people.Leo and Heller (2008), examined four large datasets, found evidence showing that exposure to non-familial suicide increases suicide risk in survivors, particularly young people. Large number of studies: that family history of suicidal behavior or suicidal completion Increased risk for suicidal behavior/completion in survivors (Jordan & McIntosh, 2010)Large number of studies: that family history of suicidal behavior or suicidal completion Increased risk for suicidal behavior/completion in survivors (Jordan & McIntosh, 2010)
  • Slide 14
  • Suicide Loss Survivors What is Known? Vulnerable to increased incidence of:Vulnerable to increased incidence of: Complicated Grief (CG)Complicated Grief (CG) Depression (including suicidal ideation)Depression (including suicidal ideation) PTSDPTSD Significant Heightened DistressSignificant Heightened Distress Persistent degree of psychological symptoms after suicidePersistent degree of psychological symptoms after suicide StigmaStigma Less Social SupportLess Social Support Effects appear strongest in familial relatives and non-familial peers (adolescents- highest)
  • Slide 15
  • Suicide Bereavement Is it Different? Jordan (2001; 2008) contends that it is, yet recognizes conflict in the data, dearth of research and need for further research. There are common themes experienced by suicide survivors.Jordan (2001; 2008) contends that it is, yet recognizes conflict in the data, dearth of research and need for further research. There are common themes experienc