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  1. 1. Differentiating Surgical Equipment and Supplies
  2. 2. Differentiating Surgical Equipment and Supplies Colleen J. Rutherford, RN, MSN, CNOR Educator Concord Hospital Concord, New Hampshire
  3. 3. F.A. Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Copyright 2010 by F.A. Davis Company Copyright 2010 by F.A. Davis Company.All rights reserved.This product is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Acquisitions Editor: Christa Fratantoro Developmental Editor: Yvonne Gillam Publisher: Margaret Biblis Manager of Content Development: George W. Lang Art and Design Manager: Carolyn OBrien As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes.The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication.The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book.Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation.The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rutherford, Colleen. Differentiating surgical equipment and supplies / Colleen J. Rutherford. p. ; cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-8036-1572-4 1. SurgeryEquipment and suppliesHandbooks, manuals, etc. I.Title. [DNLM: 1. Surgical EquipmentAtlases. 2. Equipment and SuppliesAtlases. 3. Operating Roomsorganization & administrationAtlases.WO 517 R975d 2009] RD32.R695 2009 617.9dc22 2009023553 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F.A. Davis Company for users regis- tered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC)Transactional Reporting Service,provided that the fee of $.10 per copy is paid directly to CCC,222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-1572/10 0 + $.10.
  4. 4. Acknowledgements v No one writes a book alone.I would like to acknowledge the following people and resources for their contributions to this project: First,to Christa Fratantoro,Acquisitions Editor of F.A.Davis Publishing Companyyou had enough faith in me to let me write a second book.Yvonne Gillam, Developmental Editor of F.A. Davis Publishing Companyyour energy and enthusiasm toward this project helped to make it happen. Both of you make writing a pleasure and keep me motivated. I cherish you as business associates and friends. To JamieThanks for your patience and perseverance in taking the photos for this book. You are a true artist. To my motherThank you for the love and support you have given me throughout my life. I would not be the person I am today without your love and caring. To all of my friendsyou continue to enrich my life on a daily basis. I am truly blessed to have each and every one of you in my life. To Marie DeRosiayou are a wonderful friend and terrific colleague.Thank you for your support and your willingness to model for some of the photos in this bookwhat a true friend! A special thank you to Sharon Guldin, CRNA, Sean OBrien, CRNA, and Robert Sanborn, CRNA, for their careful review and input regarding the anesthesia content. I have used numerous websites and surgical equipment catalogs to double check facts and information on the equipment and supplies in this book.
  5. 5. vii Reviewers David A. Alfaro, CST Program Director American Career College Surgical Technology Department Los Angeles, California Christina Lynn Baumer, RN, PhD, MEd, CNOR, CHES Chair Division of Continuing Education Program Director Surgical Technology Lancaster General College of Nursing and Health Sciences Continuing Education Surgical Technology Lancaster, Pennsylvania Karen L. Chambers, CST-ACLS Director Long Island University Surgical Technology Institute School of Continuing Studies Brooklyn, NewYork Kevin R. Craycraft, CST Program Director Bluegrass Community and Technical College Health and Human Services Department Lexington, Kentucky Javier E. Espinales, MEd, CST Director, Surgical Technology Program Virginia College at Austin Surgical Technology Department Austin,Texas Robin Hueske, CST Concorde Career Institute Surgical Technology Department Aurora, Colorado Tammy Mangold, MEd, CST, CFA Surgical Technologist Columbia Regional Hospital Surgery Department Colombia, Missouri Diane May, CST Associate Professor Santa Fe Community College Health Sciences Division Gainesville, Florida Rosemary A. Nagler, RN, BS, CNOR Clinical Education Coordinator Western Suffolk BOCES School of Surgical Technology Northport, NewYork Judith Schatte, RN, CNOR, CRNFA Program Director and Instructor Surgical Technology Brevard Community College Cocoa, Florida Deborah S. Smith, RN, CNOR Director and Instructor Southeastern Technical College Surgical Technology Department Glenwood, Georgia Roy G. Zacharias, Jr, BS, CST Associate Academic Dean Concorde Career Institute Surgical Technology Department Arlington,Texas
  6. 6. ix Table of Contents Chapter One: Common Equipment and Furniture 1 Aseptic (Sterile) Technique 1 Types of Sterilization 8 Operating Room Attire 10 Operating Room Table 16 Operating Room Furniture 23 Electrosurgical Units 30 Medical Gases 34 Pneumatic Tourniquet 37 Autotransfusion 39 Patient Positioning Equipment 41 Miscellaneous Equipment 45 Surgical Session Review 49 Chapter Two: General Surgical Supplies 51 Surgical Sponges 51 Hemostatics 54 Syringes 56 Surgical Wound Dressings 58 Drapes 66 Skin Prepping Solutions 76 Basins 78 Other Supplies 79 Surgical Session Review 91 Chapter Three: Tubes, Drains, Catheters and Postop Splints 93 Drains 93 Gastrointestinal Tubes 98 Urethral Catheters 100 Splints 104 Surgical Session Review 106 Chapter Four: Sutures and Suture Needles 107 Comparison of Suture Materials 107 Components of Suture Packaging 107 Suture Sizing 109 Suture 110 Surgical Needle Points 118
  7. 7. x Contents Individual Suture Needles 121 Surgical Session Review 130 Chapter Five: Endoscopic Equipment 133 Endoscopic Surgery 134 Video Towers 135 Endoscopic Cameras 136 Rigid Scope Components 137 Cystoscopy/Ureteroscopy Equipment 138 Rigid ENT/Thoracic Scopes 140 Arthroscopy Equipment 142 Flexible Endoscopes 143 Needles, Trocars and Instruments 143 Surgical Session Review 147 Chapter Six: Lasers 149 Types of Lasers 149 Other Types of Lasers 151 Laser Safety 151 Surgical Session Review 154 Chapter Seven: Specialty Equipment 157 Neurosurgery Equipment 157 Cardiopulmonary Bypass Machine 158 Bone Screws, Plates, Nails, Rods, Pins and Staples 159 Vitrectomy/Cataract Removal Machines 161 Ear Nose Throat Machines 163 Gynecological Surgery Machines 164 Liposuction 164 Microscope 164 Robotics 165 Surgical Session Review 168 Chapter Eight: Anesthesia Supplies and Equipment 171 Types of Anesthesia 171 Airways 176 Supplemental Oxygen 179 Suction 182 Anesthesia Machinery 182 Other Equipment 189 Block Needles and Supplies 190 IV Supplies and Solutions 194 Medications 200 Surgical Session Review 229 Appendix: Answers to Surgical Session Reviews 231 Index 233
  8. 8. xi Introduction Entering the operating room for the first time can be intimidating; it is like entering a for- eign land.The clothes are different (scrubs, masks and hats), the temperature cold and there are lots of equipment and supplies that are not used anywhere else except in surgery.What is a lap pad? What is the difference between Chromic and Vicryl suture? What safety precautions are necessary when the laser is in use? This book answers those questions and a whole lot more. The purpose of this book is to lessen the intimidation by describing common equipment and supplies unique to the surgical setting.Throughout the chapters there are special pages that describe some equipment or supplies in detail,help differentiate between similar supplies (e.g., types of suture), aid in troubleshooting equipment or, in the case of anesthesia, give the reader key points to look for when aiding in patient care. In some cases, the equipment and supplies require less narration; on those pages you will find pictures of the supply and a short description, including its use. Throughout the chapters you will find boxes titled Watch Out!The purpose of these boxes is to draw your attention to important information. Students and new personnel can use the book as a reference, look up supplies and equip- ment that they have come across in surgical cases or read more information about a subject. Instructors and preceptors can use the book as a learning aid, assigning personnel or students certain chapters to read or items to look up. Instructors who adopt this book for use in their classrooms also receive a CD-ROM containing test questions and pictures of the supplies and equipment that can be inserted into their own tests or presentations. The operating room is an exciting and wonderful foreign land, full of joys and some sor- rows but most of all wonderful opportunities to learn and make