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    Japanese cases to establish the Sound Material-CycleSociety

    Naohiro GOTOAssociate Professor

    Department of Ecological

    Engineering

    Toyohashi University of Technology

    1 IntroductionThe human being has consumed a large amount of resource and energy and has exhausted a

    large amount of environmental load material without considering limit of the earth, under asocial system of mass production, mass consumption, and mass disposal. However, it is

    required conversion to a new production/ consumption system and a social economic system

    for establishment of sustainable society as today's various global environmental concerns and

    the waste problems become serious.

    The Sound Material-Cycle Society is a concept for the ne! social system"

    #n narro! sense$ it is a society !hich does not discharge !aste into the

    society %y recycling" &ur pro%lems are not only !aste pro%lem %ut also

    resource pro%lem" &n the other hand$ the Sound Material-Cycle Society is

    achieved %y improving the productivity of the resource and energy 'ratio

    of production and consumption to input of resource and energy( %y the

    saving and recycling the resource in the !ide sense" E)ective use of the

    resource and discharge control of !aste is important" Please do not

    misunderstand The Sound Material-Cycle Society as *+ar%age , society"*

    2 Waste discharge and treatment in Japanased on .aste Management And Pu%lic Cleansing /a!$ 0apanese !aste is

    divided into t!o 1inds$ *#ndustrial !aste* of the gar%age !hich goes out of

    the factory and *Municipal !aste* !hich is the household ru%%ish" /ocal

    governments have responsi%ility for municipal !aste treatment and each

    company has responsi%ility for industrial !aste treatment" #n some region$

    the municipal !aste includes not only !aste from house %ut also !aste

    from o2ce and restaurant"

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    1) Municipal waste

    The amount of the municipal !aste is 34$5,,$,,, tons in 4,,5 6scal

    year$ and the !aste amount each day a person %ecomes 5"51g" The localgovernment 'city level( collects gar%age$ and the Ministry of

    Environmental Protection totals the data that the each local government

    collected in data concerning gar%age"

    The ma7ority of the household ru%%ish is ra! gar%age 'left-over food$

    scraps from coo1ing and out of use-%y date food( and paper or plastic

    used as container or !rapping material$ so measures against this

    gar%age are re8uested"

    Figure 1 Breakdown according to weight and volume household garbage

    (Ueta et al)

    #n 4,,5 6scal year$ amount of recycled !aste %y the separated !aste

    collection and the intermediate processing is 3$95,$,,, tons$ and

    amount of the group collection$ !hich is collected %y the resident group

    etc"$ is 4$:9,$,,, tons" Supposing amount in !hich %oth are matched is

    amount of recycle$ the amount of recycle is :$43,$,,, tons$ and ratios of

    total processing !aste to the group collection and the amounts of

    recycling %ecomes 53",;"

    The loss in !eight processing rate of gar%age is "9;" ecause the area of 0apan is small$ the reduction %y

    incineration occupied the main current" ?inal disposal to land 6ll is :"@;

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    !ith decrease tending for these several years" #n the remaining capacity

    of the land 6ll is 5@9$>5,$,,,m > and the remainder years are 55"4 years"

    This is a value !hich increases for :"=; increase and 5": years in theremaining capacity compared !ith the previous year" The remaining

    capacity of the 6nal disposal is %eing improved from the rise of

    consideration to the !aste pro%lem in recent years" o!ever$ the

    reduction in the amount of the 6nal disposal is re8uested strongly

    %ecause it is di2cult to construct a ne! disposal place %y the citiBen

    protest"

    2) Industrial wasteAs for industrial !aste$ %ecause each enterprise is disposing and

    treating$ the detail situation is incomprehensi%le" /ocal governments do

    the 8uestionnaire survey etc" to each entrepreneur$ Ministry of The

    Environmental totals it$ and the situation of industrial !aste is clari6ed

    for that"

    The amount of a total e haust of industrial !aste in 0apan is a%out

    9,,$,,,$,,, tons in 4,,5 6scal year$ and this is a%out eight times the

    municipal !aste" #n %rea1do!n of the industrial !aste$ a%out :, percent

    of the amount of a total e haust is occupied %y si high-ran1ing types of

    industrial sector$ agriculture industry$ electricity$ gas$ heat supply$ !ater

    service industry$ construction industry$ pulp$ paper$ paper 6nished goods

    manufacturing industry$ iron and steel industry$ and mining industry"

    A%out :, percent of the amount of total e haust is occupied %y three

    high-ran1ing articles$ sludge$ animal !aste and construction !aste"

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    Figure 2 industrial waste discharge according to industry sector and kind

    waste(The Ministry of nvironment)

    The ratio of the amount of the recycle$ the amount of ma1ing to the loss

    in !eight$ and the amount of the 6nal disposal is almost the same as the

    previous year" The amount of the recycle is a%out 5:>$,,,$,,, tons$ the

    amount of ma1ing to the loss in !eight is a%out 5=3$,,,$,,, tons$ and

    the amount of the 6nal disposal is a%out 94$,,,$,,, tons" 9@; of the

    e hausted industrial !aste is recycled and 5,; is disposed of 6nally" The

    remaining capacity of the 6nal disposal is 5= '#ncrease for

    >"5 years and >$>4,$,,,m > compared !ith previous year($ and reduction

    in the amount of the 6nal disposal is re8uested as municipal !aste is"

    3 Concept of the Sound Material-Cycle SocietyThere are two sides in the purpose of the The ecycling!based" society. #ne is an

    environmental load decrease, and another is effective use for the resource and energy. $s for

    current environmental measures, the principal ob%ect was put on the &nd of ipe

    Technology", which processed the environmental load material exhausted from the man

    activity for the environmental load decrease. However, we cannot deal with new

    environmental load material (for instance, dioxin and endocrine disrupters) discovered one

    after another and a large amount of exhausted wastes only by the &nd of ipe Technology".

    The mechanism that measures not only on the exit side but also on the entrance side, in a

    word, measures which do not put out the environmental load is necessary. $s for usage of

    resource and energy, fossil fuel and the mineral wealth should not be collected one way but

    resource circulation and effective use of waste heat should be accomplished.

    These environmental load decreases and e)ective use for the resource

    and energy are not independent %ut implications" The consumption of the virgin resource is saved at the same time as the environmental load s

    decreasing %y recycling of !aste" Moreover$ the resource and the energy

    input to !aste treatment decrease %y developing a ne! productive

    process !ith a lo! e haust of !aste" #n a !ord$ to achieve the Sound

    Material-Cycle Society society is to esta%lish society of high resource

    and energy productivity and a lo! environmental load types maintaining

    the system !hich o)ers various functions to %e necessary in the social

    life$ and this is the same as the construction of the sustaina%le society"

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    *assroduction

    +onsumptionisposal

    *assroduction

    +onsumptionisposal

    educeeuse

    ecycle

    educeeuse

    ecycle

    *anufacturing process with low environmental load

    +irculation use of waste

    *anufacturing process with low environmental load+irculation use of waste

    ecycling!based-ociety

    &xisting-ociety

    ecrease of environmental load

    ise of resource andenergy productivity

    &nd of pipe technology

    #ne way collection of resource

    &nd of pipe technology#ne way collection of resource

    +onversion ofsocial system

    Figure ! "onversion from mass consum#tion society to $%ecycling&based'

    society

    1) hree !s

    Measures and technology to achieve the ecycling-%ased society can

    divide into educe$ euse$ and ecycle$ and call these three s" educe

    Decrease the e haust of !aste %y developing a ne! productive

    process" #t is included to ma1e !aste a reduction %y incineration and

    dryness" euse

    .aste is used again as it is !ithout so putting the hand" ?or instance$

    use it again after !ashing the collected glass %ottle" ecycle

    Conversion !aste to resource again %y using energy" ?or instance$ %uild

    in the glass %ottle again after crushing the collected glass %ottle$ and

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    use it as a road pavement material"

    esides these three s$ there are several methods to esta%lish the ecycling-%ased society$ not receive the product !hich %ecomes

    discretion ' efuse($ separation and decomposing !aste to use again

    ' e6ne($ %y repairing a used product and parts ' epair("

    Figure iagram of $%ecycling&based' *ociety

    2)!ecycle

    ecycle is one means to construct the ecycling-%ased society" There is

    an e)ect of decrease the amount of the 6nal disposal %y converting the

    material !hich has %een 6nally disposed up to no! as !aste into the

    resource and energy %y recycling$ and consume neither a ne! resource

    nor