Study Tour to Italy Presentation #1 A Focus on Florence & Michelangelo

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Study Tour to Italy Presentation #1 A Focus on Florence & Michelangelo. We will be sightseeing in Florence all day Saturday June 25 We will spend four nights in Florence (taking day trips on the other days). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Study Tour to ItalyPresentation #1A Focus on Florence & Michelangelo 1

We will be sightseeing in Florence all day Saturday June 25We will spend four nights in Florence (taking day trips on the other days)1FlorenceHeart of the Early Renaissancecathedral begun 1296completed 1436 with dome by Brunelleschi 2

Italy after 1000 city-states free themselves from nobilityEstablish as free republics or communes

New rich middle class Tuscanyregion in central Italy

Where Renaissance began to emerge

3

BRUNELLESCHI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 14011402.4

Florence BapisteryHas three sets of Bronze doors from the early RenaissanceGhiberti (winner) BRUNELLESCHI5

LORENZO GHIBERTI, east doors (Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 14251452. 6

After loosing the competition, Brunelleschi went to Rome with Donatello to study classical art & architectureBecame famous architectput the dome on the Florence CathedralSaid to have invented the system of linear perspective7

Brunelleschis peepshow ANCIENT ROMEPantheon, Rome, Italy, 118 125 CE Marcus Aurelius, Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE 8

8 all antica Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel, c. 1440

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The Pantheon, Rome9 ALL ANTICA Marcus Aurelius DONATELLO, Gattamelata , Padua, ca. 1445145010

10Both in the Bargello Museum (we probably wont see) 11

1408-09---For the Cathedral/City:To those who fight bravely for the fatherland the gods lend aid even against the most terrible foes1450s-60sfor the Medici FamilyDonatellos David originally stood in the courtyard of the Medici Palace in Florence

The Medici were not noble, but wealthy bankersTheir wealth began with the textile industry & the wool guild

13

MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, begun 1445According to Vasari, Brunelleschi submitted a modelrejected as too sumptuousB smashed the model 13

The Medici would rise to great power, eventually becoming royalty through marriage alliancesIn 1547 the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence two Medici Queens of France:Catherine de Medici (regent, 1547-1559)Marie de Medici (regent, 1600-1610)

the Medici coat of armsFour popes: Leo X, Clement VII, Pius IV, Leo XIthe first three were patrons of Michelangelo (Leo XI after his death)

* built the Medici palace* patron of Fra Angelico& Fra Filippo Lippi* patron of Donatello* patron of Brunelleschi & the completion of the Duomo

Under the leadership of Cosimo deMedici beginning in 1434, the Medici became the unofficial governors of the Republic of Florence

Cosimo the Elder, Patron of Art

Cosimos son Piero the Gouty only stayed in power for five years and had little interest in art

but Cosimos grandson Lorenzo the Magnificent was one of the greatest patrons of the RenaissanceLorenzo de' Medici (1449-92)

Painted terracotta, probably after a model by Andrea del Verrocchio and Orsino Benintendi

Continued to rule Florence unofficially

Maintained a fragile peace among Italian city states

Great patron of the artsBotticelli, Primavera, c. 1482probably for the marriage of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco deMedici17

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KEY WORK!SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1482. Tempera on canvas, approx. 5 8 x 9 1. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 19

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Hellenistic Period, Venus de Medici, 4th century BCE(R) Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, 1484-86

Portrait of a much older Michelangelohe wore a turban while sculpting to protect his hairGiuliano Bugiardini (?), Portrait of Michelangelo, 16th century

IN 1492 the teenage Michelangelo joined the Medici Household Giovanni Mannozzi, Lorenzo de' Medici surrounded by artists, admiring Michelangelo's 'Faun,' 17th century fresco

IN 1492 the teenage Michelangelo joined the Medici HouseholdLorenzo deMedici supposedly first noticed Michelangelo when he was carving the head of a faun in the Medici sculpture garden. He subsequently invited M to live in the Medici Palace, where he was treated like a son.Michelangelo born March 6, 1475 The Buonarroti family were part of the patrician upper class of Florence.

Born in the Shadow of the Dome--in Caprese (90 miles east of Florence)his father Lodovico Buonarroti was the resident governor (6 month appointment).

Family then returned to its home in Settignano, just outside Florencerelatively poor town many stone carversBuonorroti house still survivesit was the second largest property in the town

wetnursefamily of stone-carvers story

The family also purchased a home in the citynow the Casa Buonaroti, a museum Michelangelos mother died in 1481 when he was six years old

With each large payment for his art, Michelangelo would purchase additional pieces of property in and around Florence. A safe and lucrative investment.c. 1485 age 10--attends grammar school of the humanist Francesco di Urbino. Father remarries.

Studia humanitatis: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, moral philosophy (Latin & Greek)Michelangelo had only two years of such education at the most.

By 1487 Michelangelo is documented in workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Remains there until c. 1490. Age 12-15Supposed self-portrait of Ghirlandaio, from Adoration of the Magi, 1488

How did Michelangelo get such a great job?

Family connections to Medici?Domenico Ghirlandaioleading Florentine painter noted for fresco

Michelangelo seems to have not been an ordinary apprentice

The Sassetti Chapel, Santa Trinita, Florence, c. 1480 Stories of St. Francis

Michelangelos first known paintingc. 1487-1488

purchased in 2008 for 2 million as Workshop of GhirlandaioCleaned & reattributed to Michelangelo at Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2009 & purchased by the Kimbell Art Museum for 6 million

1490 -1492Two of the happiest years of his lifemember of the Medici household under Lorenzo de Mediciage 15-17 years

Courtyard, Palazzo Medici, FlorenceThe humanist philosophers of Lorenzos courtprovided Michelangelo access to the greatest minds of his age

Domenico Ghirlandaio, Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano, Gentile de Becchi, 1485-90 Michelangelo was educated alongside two Medici princesOne was the future Pope Leo X and one was the future Clement VIIthe Medici provided Michelangelo with over 50 years of patronage

Raphael, Portrait of Pope Leo X and Two Cardinals, 1518On left: Guilio de Medici (Clement VII)

Lorenzo de Medici died in 1492Michelangelo returned to his fathers houseBegan working on a life-size Hercules (lost)Death mask of Lorenzo de Medici1490s Florence in upheavalDominican friar SavonarolaDenounced humanism & the Medici (fled 1494)repent sins--bonfire of the vanities35

Botticelli became a follower of Savonarolaalmost completely stopped painting Botticelli, Mystical Nativity, c. 150036

In late autumn of 1494 King Charles VIII crossed the Alps with an army of 25,000, throwing Italy into political chaos. Beginning of Italian War 1494-98Out of fear, the Florentines expelled the Medici and established a republic

French army enters Florence, 1494Savonarola welcomed the purification of the Frenchthis contributed to his downfall to come

In 1496 Michelangelo journeyed to Rome for the first timeA neglected, derelict cityMuch of Rome dishabitatoIn contrast Florence wealthy, thriving

Map of Rome, 1472Walls of Leo IV, c. 1000 still surrounding St. PetersJacopo Galli secures a major commission for MichelangeloFrench Cardinal & ambassador for Charles VIII Jean de Bilheresmonument for his tomb in Santa Petronilla (Chapel of the French kings)an ancient rotunda attached to Old Saint Peters (now destroyed)

Bee lere3940Pietatraditionally a northern subject (Cardinal from France)

Virgin with the Dead Christ, from Germany, ca. 13001325.

40In August 1498 the block of marble arrived in Romecontract then signedJacopo Galli promised that the work would bethe most beautiful marble statue in Rome, one no living artist could better

Michelangelo Buonarroti, Pieta, 1498-99Beautiful & idealizedChrist appears sleeping, not deadMary appears youngtimelesshighly polished and finished

Execution of Savonarola, Florence, 1498

43MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 15011504. Marble, 13 5 high. Florence.

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David with his sling and I with my bow Michelangelo. 45

It is necessary to keep one's compass in one's eyes and not in the hand, for the hands execute, but the eye judges.

MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound Slave, 15131516. Marble, approx. 6 10 1/2 high. Louvre, Paris. 46

I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.

Raphael, Portrait of Julius II, 1511-12the Warrior Pope r. 1503-13most important patron of the High Renaissance47

Demolishes old St Petersbegins rebuilding

Michelangelo to design his tomb

Michelangelo to fresco Sistine ceiling

4849

Michelangelo, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, fresco, Vatican, Rome, 1508-1512

Last Judgment, 1537-4150

Next meeting:STUDENT PRESENTATIONS ON SISTINE CHAPEL15th century frescos (not by Michelangelo)Ancestors of ChristProphets & SibylsIgnudiCentral Scenes from Genesis (three sets of three)Last J