STUDY ON COMPREHENSIVE REHABILITATION ... ... slum rehabilitation, it is important to classify slums...

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Transcript of STUDY ON COMPREHENSIVE REHABILITATION ... ... slum rehabilitation, it is important to classify slums...

  • STUDY ON COMPREHENSIVE REHABILITATION STRATEGIES FOR THE URBAN POOR IN PUNE CITY FINAL REPORT November 2007 SHELTER ASSOCIATES PUNE, INDIA

  • Acknowledgements

    We take great pleasure in presenting this report as part of the research work that Shelter Associates has been committed to carrying out, not only to improve access to basic services and housing to the urban poor, but also as an advocacy tool for framing better policies by the government in their efforts to reach out with effective programmes for the poor.

    This report is based on the field efforts carried out by Shelter Associates and the members of Baandhani Federation in 2000-01 in which over 200 settlements were mapped and surveyed in detail. They have worked very hard and long hours and their work constitutes the basis of the analysis in this report. We want to extend a special thanks to Ashwini Adawade, Sandhya Kamble, Jain Hobsen, Shashi Asware, Sambhaji Mandke, Pradeep Waze, Dilip Kamble and Zahida Khan for supervising the entire data collection and data entry and mapping. Swapna Kunte and Srinanda Sen for painstakingly compiling, and integrating the map and socio-economic information on the GIS.

    We would like to specially acknowledge the efforts of Veena Chandran, an architect, who has compiled the data and statistics, made architectural drawings and also put the entire report together. Jennifer Karius deserves a special mention for thoroughly researching the topic, Mr. Rajendra Nimbalkar for sharing the format for calculating free sale component and Zigisha Mhaskar for editing the report and giving valuable suggestions.

    And last but not the least a very special thanks to Mr. Sunil Bhutkar (Architect/Structural consultant, member trustee of SA) and Mr. Vishal Jain (management consultant, member trustee of SA) for their valuable guidance and contribution in making this study comprehensive and useful for the city.

    Pratima Joshi

    Project Co-ordinator and Director, Shelter Associates

  • Contents 1. Introduction 01 a. Project Background 01 b. Aims & Objectives 02 c. Approach 02 2. Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) 04 a. Background of the SRA originating in Mumbai 04 b. SRA in Pune 05 c. SRA Rules & guidelines 08 d. SRA Incentive System 11 3. Study of three Slums redeveloped as per SRA regulations 13 a. Zone A 15

    a. 1. Lohiya Nagar- Bhavani Peth 15

    b. Zone B 18 b. і. Dandekar Pul Survey No. 130 – Parvati 18

    c. Zone C: 21

    c. і. Kasturba Vasahat – Aundh 21 d. Findings from case studies 24

    d.1. Comparative Analysis of the Three settlements 24 d.2. Cost Assumptions 24 d.3. Analysis as per 25 sq. m. built up area for the three representative slums 25 d.3.i. Lohiya Nagar: 25 d.3.ii. Dandekar Pul 130 26 d.3.iii. Kasturba Gandhi Vasahat 27 d.4 Comparison of Lohiya Nagar, Dandekar Pul and Kasturba Gandhi 28 d.5. Scenario if built up areas are increased 29

    4. Projection of SRA on Pune City 31

    a. Projection of TDR generation citywide per zone based on SA data 32

    5. Suggested Modifications and Improvements to SRA regulations: 36 1. Master Plan of Pune city, before any SRA project is sanctioned 36 2. Allow PMC to Redefine Zones with More Precision 37 3. Change Remuneration System for Slums on Private Land 37 4. Avoid Fragmented Development of Slums 38 5. Tenement Size 39 6. Consent Provision 39 7. Impact of a scheme on neighbouring areas 39 8. Form an independent oversight/feedback committee 40 9. Judicious use of TDR by local authorities 40

  • 10. For sites with greater tenement densities, ambiguity regarding the extra FSI given 41

    6. JNNURM Funding for Slum Rehabilitation 42

    a. JNNURM Mission Objectives 42 b. BSUP program 43 c. Pune CDP's action agenda for Urban Poor 47

    7. Comparison of SRA & JNNURM 50

    a. SWOT Analysis of SRA 50 b. SWOT Analysis of JNNURM for Urban poor 51

    8. Common suggestions for JNNURM and SRA re-development schemes 52

    1. Tenement Density: 52 2. High-rise Structures: 52 3. Include Post-1995 residents: 53

    9. Comprehensive Housing Strategies for Pune's Urban Poor. 54

    9.1 Strategies as per Land classification for existing slums 54 A. Slums on reservation or vulnerable 55 B. Slums located on public (city land) owned by the

    PMC/PCMC and State Government 55 C. Slums on private land 56 D. Slums falling under central government land 56

    9.2 Generating Housing stock to meet the housing needs

    of future urban poor 57 10. Summary of recommendations 59

    Appendix

    1. Appendix T Slum re-development

    2. Revised SRA rules and regulation 2006

    3. Cost analysis of Lohiya Nagar, Dandekar Pul 130 and Kasturba Gandhi Vasahat (Built up area 25 sq. m.)

    4. Cost analysis of Lohiya Nagar, Dandekar Pul 130 and Kasturba Gandhi Vasahat (Built up area 35 sq. m.)

    5. Cost analysis of Slums in Pune city (Built up area 25 sq. m.)

    6. Cost analysis of Slums in Pune city (Built up area 35 sq. m.)

    7. Urban Layout, Densities and Quality of Urban Life by Shirish Patel

    Glossary

  • Shelter Associates 1

    Introduction Shelter Associates (SA) has undertaken a study, to work out a comprehensive strategy for housing the urban poor of Pune city, in the light of the Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) and Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The study is based on actual data and mapping information gathered and integrated on GIS by SA in the year 2000 for over two hundred Pune settlements, and PMC data available for slums not covered by the survey. This provides a look at almost 70% of the city’s poor.

    a. Project Background

    Due to Pune’s steady population growth, it is estimated that as of 2006, almost 42% of the city’s population (approximately 2 lakh households) lives in degraded areas, comprised of 564 slum pockets (Environmental Status Report 2006). In an effort to mitigate the increasing housing gap, the Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) was formally instituted in 2005 in the city of Pune (similar to the Mumbai SRA) by the Government of Maharashtra to address issues of slum housing, especially those located on private land. In December 2005, the Government of India introduced the JNNURM programme with special emphasis on strengthening infrastructure and housing for the urban poor. As recipient of funding under the JNNURM (BSUP), Pune (Urban Local Body) has identified 40,000 households located in slums on marginal or no-development zones for relocation. This comprises approximately 20% of the total slum households in the city (Pune City Development Plan). The city has applied for NURM funding under the BSUP program to relocate these families and has been the largest beneficiary of this program so far. The plans already cleared in Pune and Pimpri Chinchwad total at just over Rs.640 crore.1 While NURM is expected to provide funding for the relocation of 20% of the poor, the city is yet to chalk out a clear policy for slums located on government and private land. It is depending on the SRA for the in-situ rehabilitation of the poor on private and government land, (CDP), by building in incentives for private developers and builders to participate. In order to offer a viable menu of options for the poor, it would be necessary to understand the implications of the current government initiatives to address this issue. The SRA and JNNURM are considered to be the key programmes under which the city hopes to mitigate the increasing housing gap. Coincidentally both these were launched in December 2005: the SRA as part of the State initiative to rehabilitate the poor, and the JNNURM by the Central Government to strengthen urban infrastructure in cities with special emphasis on housing and basic services for the poor. It would be imperative to study the SRA rules in some detail to gauge its citywide impact. The future conditions for increasing rapid development in Pune is a particularly important issue to address, especially in light of the potential mobility of

    1 http://www.jnnurm.nic.in , DPR’s, April 21, 2007.

  • Shelter Associates 2

    vast resources that the JNNURM has made available. Since the JNNURM inception, in December of 2005, Pune City is a significant current and future applicant.

    b. Aims & Objectives

    This study will attempt to apply the SRA guidelines to a few selected Pune slums to understand how it impacts development locally. Then the same principles will be applied on a larger scale to gauge its effect on the city. After understanding this, an attempt will be made to draw up a comprehensive strategy for re-housing the poor based on their location and land ownership. Shelter Associates has prepared this report, as a way of presenting the SRA system of slum rehabilitation in a manner that is understandable to everyone. It is necessary that the general public have access to the basic workings of Slum Rehabilitation Schemes and the concept of Transferable Development Rights (TDR) in order that ordinary citizens are informed, and so t