Study on chemical composition of Agaricus blazei PDF21(1)/27Rozsa Sandor...Study on chemical...

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  • Volume 21(1), 150- 157, 2017 JOURNAL of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology www.journal-hfb.usab-tm.ro

    150

    Study on chemical composition of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom, produced on different substrates Rzsa S.1*, Mniuiu D.N.1, Gocan Tincua-Marta1, Sima Rodica1, Rzsa Melinda2

    1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture 3-5 Mntur St.,

    400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia; 2 SC Ciupercria SRL, 332 Aghireu-Fabrici, 407010, Cluj County,

    Romnia, www.ciupercaria.com *Corresponding author. Email: drd.rozsa.sandor@gmail.com Abstract All edible mushrooms are high in vitamin B plus other vitamins such as vitamin C and ergosterol. Bioactive compounds from edible mushrooms have become new products for health therapy, especially anti-cancer therapies. Almond mushroom - Agaricus blazei Murrill was discovered and popularised as late as the 20th century. However, it has been known for its exceptional properties in the places of its origin for a long time. Studies have been conducted worldwide for several decades, aiming at the precise determination of these properties and their applicability in medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four growing substrates of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom on the chemical composition of mushrooms.

    Key words compost, Agaricus blazei Murrill, vitamin B, vitamin C, ergosterol

    The fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murrill contain

    89-91% water, which is in general less than that of A.

    bisporus. Almost 48% of total dry matter consists of

    crude protein and 18% of carbohydrates, but the lipid

    content is only 0.5% [6]. The fruiting bodies of

    Agaricus blazei Murrill contain high levels of valuable

    minerals, e.g. potassium, phosphorus, calcium,

    magnesium and zinc. Nevertheless, a minute amount of

    cadmium was also detectable [6].

    Bioactive compounds of mushrooms can be isolated

    from their fruiting bodies, or culture extraction from

    pure culture of mycelia [1]. Agaricus blazei Murrill has

    been reported to produce various bioactive compounds

    that have potential to treat many diseases [5]. This

    mushroom has been used as a medicinal food for the

    prevention of cancer, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia,

    arteriosclerosis, and chronic hepatitis, and is known to

    stimulate the immune system [20].

    Several categories of molecules are involved in

    beneficial effects of Agaricus blazei Murrill and most

    of them are common to the entire fungal kingdom [10].

    Some compounds (such as ergosterol and b-glucans)

    are considered as biochemical markers for the kingdom

    and are ubiquitous. -Glucans are cell wall constituents

    that can be found in many fungi [10].

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is a well-known medicinal

    mushroom used in many countries, and thus

    consumption of this mushroom is used as an alternative

    way to cure diseases. Various pharmaceutical activities

    have been found associated with Agaricus blazei

    Murrill and researches to reveal the function of

    bioactive compounds are extensive. Recent studies

    have been performed in vitro and in vivo to confirm the

    mushrooms therapeutic properties [5]. Identification of

    (novel) immunomodulating bioactive compounds from

    the mushroom may also help in new treatments for

    patients suffering from cancer and immunodeficiency

    [13].

    Almond mushroom is a saprophytic species, growing

    well on soils rich in ligno-cellulose residue [19]. As it

    was reported by Stamets [19], Wasser [21] and Dias

    [4], natural habitats for this species include mixed

    forests, first of all their margins, as well as fields in

    upland and mountainous areas of Brazil and Peru.

    Almond mushroom is the so-called secondary

    saprophyte, developing on partially processed

    substrate, in which microorganisms reduced complex

    ligno-cellulose compounds [2]. Numerous authors have

    shown that due to the similar life cycle in the

    cultivation of almond mushroom technologies

    developed for white button mushroom may be applied.

    However, almond mushroom requires high temperature

    and high humidity as well as access to light to form

    fruiting bodies [2,3,4,11,18]. In Brazil, due to the

    advantageous climatic conditions this species is

    frequently grown outdoors; however, in other countries

    - mainly due to its high temperature requirements -

    such cultivation system is risky and may only be

    successful during very warm summers [9,18,19].

    The results of Agaricus cultivation to a considerable

    degree are determined by the composition of the

    substrate. Unfortunately, there is a limited body of data

    concerning growing media for almond mushroom

    cultivation. Frequently producers, particularly in Brazil

    and Japan, use substrate with the composition

    developed for white button mushroom [11]. However,

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  • 151

    both species may respond differently to an identical

    substrate composition. For this reason, it is essential to

    develop a substrate meeting requirements of almond

    mushroom [22]. The primary components in such a

    substrate are most frequently locally available

    materials, subjected to composting, e.g. agricultural

    waste rich in ligno-cellulose complexes, i.e. straw,

    cotton burrs, grasses, sawdust, enriched with animal

    manure, poultry dung, wheat or rice bran and calcium

    [7,8,9,12,14,17].

    Material and Method

    Given that in the experience we made, the culture

    substrate presents 4 graduations (a1-classic compost,

    a2- synthetic compost, a3-mixed compost, a4-original

    compost) to achieve directed composting, were

    conducted 4 identical tanks to control, perform and

    record optimal environmental conditions necessary for

    the composting and pasteurization process. (figure no.

    1-6).

    For the experiments, we used four recipes of compost, presented in table no. 1

    7

    4

    6 5

    1

    2 3

    8

    9

    1

    0

    Module a1

    11

    7

    4

    6 5

    1

    2 3

    8

    9

    1

    0

    Module a2

    7

    4

    6 5

    1

    2 3

    8

    9

    1

    0

    Module a3

    7

    4

    6 5

    1

    2 3

    8

    9

    1

    0

    Module a4

    Figure no. 1. Sketch for the composting facility - 4 modules:

    1 - tank with capacity of 1 m3 for compost components; 2 rack for compost; 3 - tank heating system for composting;

    4 - tank for the collection and recirculation the water excess; 5 - heating elements for wetting water (purine); 6

    water/purine recirculation pump; 7 - recirculation pipes for wetting water/ purine; 8 - compost discharge door; 9 - air

    flow control valve for aerobic composting; 10 - air inlet pipe to aerobic composting from the compressor; 11 -

    ground level.

    Figure 2. Composting facility - 4

    modules

    Source: original photo

    Figure 3. Tank for the collection and

    recirculation of the water excess

    Source: original photo

    Figure 4. Compressor for the air flow

    Source: original photo

  • 152

    Table 1

    Recipes for compost used in experience

    Type of compost

    Components Quantity for 1 tone of

    compost

    C1 - Classical Horse manure (horse manure and wheat bedding straw 70-75%)

    Gypsum (calcium sulphate)

    Superphosphate

    Ammonium sulphate

    500 kg

    25 kg

    7 kg

    7 kg

    C2 - Synthetic Wheat straw

    Poultry litter

    Gypsum (calcium sulphate)

    Urea

    350 kg

    150 kg

    20 kg

    7 kg

    C3 - Mixt Horse manure (horse manure and wheat bedding straw 70-75%)

    Poultry litter

    Wheat straw

    Gypsum (calcium sulphate)

    Urea

    250 kg

    100 kg

    150 kg

    24 kg

    2 kg

    C4 - Original shredded reed

    Horse manure (horse manure and wheat bedding straw 70-75%)

    Poultry litter

    Gypsum (calcium sulphate)

    Urea

    100 kg

    200 kg

    150 kg

    24 kg

    2 kg

    Each type of compost was prepared in a composting

    tank, respecting the proportions of raw and auxiliary

    materials.

    The compost pasteurization was achieved by raising

    the temperature of compost at 58-60 C for a period of

    about 8 hours, then lowering the temperature of the

    compost at 50C by mixing fresh air and continued

    cooling to 45C. The temperature of 45C was

    maintained until the ammonia content of the compost

    has not fallen below 0.05% and the pH has stabilized in

    the range of 7.3-7.5. [15,16]. In experience, we used

    protein additives as follows: A1 without protein

    additives, A2 - 3% wheat bran and A3 - Corn flour 3%.

    Results and Discussions

    Table no. 2 presents the effect of compost and protein

    additives (A x C) on the dry matter of mushrooms

    during year 2015 and 2016 of experience.

    The maximum value of total dry matter (9.43%) and

    soluble dry matter (8.50%) was recorded by mushroom

    harvested from C3 A2 combination, the minimum

    value of total dry matter was recorded by C4 A1

    combination (7.13%) and the minimum value of

    soluble dry matter was recorded by C4 A3 combination

    (7.07%).