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Transcript of Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton - .Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton . WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE

  • Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton

  • WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE SHOULDER GIRDLE?

    1

  • What bones make up the shoulder girdle?

    The clavicle, scapula, and the manubrium of the sternum

  • WHERE DOES THE SHOULDER GIRDLE ARTICULATE WITH THE AXIAL SKELETON?

    a)

  • Where does the shoulder girdle articulate with the axial skeleton?

    At the sternoclavicular joint

    Where the sternum connects with the clavicle

  • EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAL, AXILLARY, AND SUPERIOR BORDERS OF THE SCAPULA?

    2

  • Explain how you can tell the difference between the vertebral, axillary, and

    superior borders of the scapula?

    Vertebral border:

    Located along the side of the scapula that runs alongside the spine

    Axillary border:

    Located along the side of the scapula that is nearest to the armpit

    Superior border:

    The top border of the scapula

  • TRUE OR FALSE: THE AC JOINT IS MADE UP OF THE ACROMION PROCESS AND THE CLAVICLE

    3

  • True or false: the ac joint is made up of the acromion process and the clavicle

    True

    AcromioClavicular joint

  • IS THE SCAPULAR SPINE LOCATED ON THE ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR SIDE OF THE SCAPULA?

    4

  • Is the scapular spine located on the anterior or posterior side of the

    scapula? Posterior side

  • WHERE DOES THE HUMERUS ARTICULATE WITH THE SCAPULA?

    5

  • Where does the humerus articulate with the scapula?

    The glenoid fossa

  • WHY IS THE AREA OF THE HUMERUS JUST BELOW THE TUBERCLES REFERRED TO AS THE SURGICAL NECK?

    6

  • Why is the area of the humerus just below the tubercles referred to as the

    surgical neck?

    This area is the most common location for fractures in the humerus.

  • DESCRIBE HOW YOU COULD LOCATE THE INTERTUBERCULAR GROOVE ON THE HUMERUS.

    7

  • Describe how you could locate the intertubercular groove on the

    humerus.

    First find the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal portion of the epiphysis.

    The groove is the divot between these two tubercles.

  • WHERE IS THE DELTOID TUBEROSITY LOCATED ON THE HUMERUS?

    8

  • Where is the deltoid tuberosity located on the humerus?

    Along the outside portion of the diaphysis of the humerus.

    Basically a small notch

  • HOW COULD YOU TELL IF YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE THE LEFT HUMERUS OR THE RIGHT HUMERUS?

    9

  • How could you tell if you are looking at the the left humerus or the right

    humerus?

    Identify the head of the humerus, the olecranon fossa (posterior side), and the medial epicondyle (largest of the two epicondyle)

  • EXPLAIN HOW THE HUMERUS IS INVOLVED WITH KEEPING YOU FROM HYPEREXTENDING YOUR ELBOW.

    10

  • Explain how the humerus is involved with keeping you from hyperextending

    your elbow.

    The olecranon fossa acts as a catch for the olecranon process of the ulna. It stops the arm from over extending.

  • IF SOMEONE HAD A GUN TO YOUR HEAD, HOW COULD YOU QUICKLY IDENTIFY THE TROCHLEA OF THE HUMERUS?

    11

  • If someone had a gun to your head, how could you quickly identify the

    trochlea of the humerus?

    It is a deep groove that looks similar to a pulley on the distal epiphysis of the humerus.

  • EXPLAIN HOW THE OLECRANON FOSSA, SEMILUNAR NOTCH, CAPITULUM, TROCHLEA, AND OLECRANON PROCESS ARE INVOLVED WITH THE ELBOW.

    12

  • Explain how the olecranon fossa, semilunar notch, capitulum, trochlea, and olecranon process are involved

    with the elbow #essaywarning

    Describe the location of each area

    Explain how each articulates with the other

  • THE GUY WITH THE GUN IS BACK..HOW CAN YOU FIND THE ULNA BEFORE ITS TOO LATE?

    13

  • The guy with the gun is back..how can you find the ulna before its too

    late? The ulna is always located on the pinky side of

    the arm.

  • LIST THE DISTAL ROW OF CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.

    14

  • List the distal row of carpal bones, starting from the thumb and moving

    toward the pinky.

    Trapezium

    Trapezoid

    Capitate

    Hamate ***Be sure to review the bones around each bone as it

    could be a description on a question

  • LIST THE PROXIMAL ROW OF THE CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.

    15

  • List the proximal row of the carpal bones, starting from the thumb and

    moving toward the pinky.

    Scaphoid

    Lunate

    Triquetrum

    Pisiform

  • WHAT IS MISLEADING ABOUT THE BONES OF THE HAND IF YOU JUST LOOK STRICTLY AT THE SKELETON?

    16

  • What is misleading about the bones of the hand if you just look strictly at the

    skeleton? Looking at the skeleton it appears as though

    the carpal bones make up the palm of the hand. This is not the case as the metacarpals make up the majority of the palm of the hand.

  • HOW MANY MIDDLE PHALANGES ARE ON THE HAND?

    17

  • How many middle phalanges are on the hand?

    4

  • WHY? a)

  • Why?

    The thumb is only made up of a proximal and distal phalanx.

  • WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE PELVIC GIRDLE?

    18

  • What bones make up the pelvic girdle?

    The coxal bones, sacrum, and the coccyx

  • WHAT BONES ARE FUSED TOGETHER AS A PART OF THIS?

    a)

  • What bones are fused together as a part of this?

    Ilium

    Ischium

    Pubis

  • WHAT PORTIONS OF THE COXAL BONES CAN BE EASILY PALPATED?

    19

  • What portions of the coxal bones can be easily palpated?

    Iliac crest

  • EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FALSE PELVIS.

    20

  • Explain the relationship between the true and false pelvis #essaywarning

    Be able to describe the invisible border where the false pelvis ends and the true begins.

    Why are the two shaped differently in males and females.

    Explain what organs are located in each area.

  • WHAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS FOR FEMALES?

    21

  • What is important about the pubic symphysis for females?

    Since it is made of cartilage, it allows for the pelvis to expand, allowing the birth canal to widen enough for a baby to fit through.

  • WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MARKINGS OF THE PROXIMAL PORTION OF THE FEMUR?

    22

  • What are the major markings of the proximal portion of the femur?

    Head

    Neck

    Greater trochanter

    Lesser trochanter

  • DESCRIBE THE DIAPHYSIS OF THE FEMUR.

    23

  • Describe the diaphysis of the femur.

    On the posterior side, the linea aspera begins proximally and eventually divides into the supracondylar lines

  • HOW CAN YOU TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONDYLES AND EPICONDYLES ON THE FEMUR?

    24

  • How can you tell the difference between the condyles and epicondyles

    on the femur? The epicondyles will be located superficially

    on the bone. They will be bony protuberances on the distal portion of the femur. Conversely, the condyles are covered with cartilage and articulate with the lower leg bones.

  • WHAT IS THE LARGEST SESAMOID BONE IN THE HUMAN BODY?

    25

  • What is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body?

    Patella

  • WHAT ARE THE SPINES ON THE TIBIA WHERE THE ACL AND PCL ATTACH CALLED?

    26

  • What are the spines on the tibia where the acl and pcl attach called?

    Intercondylar emminance

  • WHAT SPECIAL MARKINGS CAN YOU FEEL ON YOUR SHIN?

    27

  • What special markings can you feel on your shin?

    Crest of the tibia

  • WHAT SPECIAL MARKING MAKES UP YOUR INNER ANKLE?

    28

  • What special marking makes up your inner ankle?

    Medial malleolus

  • YOU JUST CANT GET RID OF THIS WILD GUNMAN.HOW CAN YOU QUICKLY TELL THE TIBIA AND FIBULA APART?

    29

  • You just cant get rid of this wild gunman.how can you quickly tell the

    tibia and fibula apart?

    The fibula is smaller than the tibia, lateral to the tibia, and located deeper in the lower leg.

  • WHY IS THE FOOT CONSTRUCTED OF TWO ARCHES?

    30

  • Why is the foot constructed of two arches?

    Arches are the most stable and sturdy architectural shape to support large amounts of weight.

  • WHAT ARE THE TWO ARCHES CALLED?

    a)

  • What are the two arches called?

    Longitudinal arch

    Made up of medial and lateral longitudinal arches

    Transverse arch

  • WHAT HAPPENS TO INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING FROM FLAT FEET?

    31

  • What happens to individuals suffering from flat Feet?

    The ligaments holding the tarsal bones together weaken and the natural arches fall

    Pain in the foot and heel

    Pain radiating to the knee and eventually to the spine

  • WHAT ABOUT HIGH ARCHES, OR CLAW FOOT?

    a)

  • What about high arches, or claw foot?

    Charcot Marie Tooth disorder (CMT)

    The arches are over arched causing instability in the ankle

    Common for individuals suffering from muscular dystrophy

  • WHAT IS ACTUALLY HAPPENING TO MOST PEOPLE THAT