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  • Students Preparation for IELTS: Development of Written and Oral Argumentative


    Sharif Moghaddam

    B.A. (Honours) Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran

    M.A. in TEFL Azad University (Central Branch), Tehran

    Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Discipline of Linguistics

    Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

    University of Adelaide

    February 2010

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    Appendix A

    Letter of Introduction and Coding System

    a. Letter of Introduction

    Project Participation Information Centre for European Studies and General Linguistics Faculty of Humanities and Social Science

    Sharif Moghaddam, PhD Candidate Napier 915

    The University of Adelaide SA 5005 Phone: +61 8 8303 8227

    Email: [email protected]

    Dear Student, My name is Sharif Moghaddam. I am undertaking a research project as part of my PhD degree in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Centre for European Studies and General Linguistics (CESGL), The University of Adelaide. My project title is: IELTS Preparation Practices: An Investigation into Academic Literacy Development This information sheet is to help you make a decision about participating in this project. You may discuss it with other people before making a decision to sign the form. IT IS IMPORTANT TO KEEP THIS SHEET TO REMIND YOURSELF ABOUT WHAT WE ARE DOING. Also, a copy of the signed consent form will be given to you. Purpose of the Study In this project I will study IELTS academic preparation practices. I am interested in language development in the program as part of university study. If you do not want to participate, or want to withdraw later, it will not have any consequence for you or your study. What is involved I would like to observe your classroom activities on one day per week for approximately 4 to 5 months. I will be watching what happens in your classroom and will video and audio record two or three of these classroom observations. I would also like to interview you about your language development and your study and this will take about 20 to 30 minutes of your time.

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    If you agree I will audio and video record the interview. I will collect your written activities and your activities on the handouts from the instructor to analyse your activities with them. The study will commence in February 2007 and will take approximately 4 to 5 months. Possible benefits from the Study This study will contribute to knowledge of IELTS preparation practices. You as participants may also benefit from this study by getting prepared for your forthcoming IELTS examination. However, please be advised that these may be of no instant benefit. Confidentiality I would like to audio and video record our conversations. You do not have to answer any question or to discuss any issues that may make you feel uncomfortable. When recording activities, written or spoken, your real names will never be used. All real names on written activities will be removed. In interviews a pseudonym (unreal name) will be used. Information will be kept in a locked drawer in the university and digital information will be password protected on the university computer in a private storage drive. The researcher will transcribe all audio and videotapes. If you wish to check a copy of my notes before I use them in my study, please tell me. Discomfort and Inconveniences It is probable that in some sessions an outsider will attend to video record the classroom activities. We will do our best not to interrupt your learning. We will negotiate the arrangements about the settings for the interviews. The interviews will be more like a conversation. You are free to withdraw your interview or recorded materials up until the time that I have finished all data collection. You do not have to give any reason if you do decide to withdraw from the study. The recorded materials will be erased as soon as I have finished using them to make notes. Complaints Please refer to the complaints procedure sheet if you experience any problems with this study. Contacts If you need any more information, or if there are any problems regarding this research, please contact the following people. Peter Mickan, PhD, the University of Adelaide, Australia Phone: 08 8303 3405

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    Sharif Moghaddam, PhD candidate, the University of Adelaide, Australia Phone: 08 8303 8227 / 08 8359 3182 I look forward to your participation and the chance to hear your comments. Yours truly, Sharif Moghaddam

    b. Coding System

    i. The candidates names and their codes N.B.: The candidates were coded based on their sitting place in the classroom in a U shape

    from left to right. They sat in the same seat in the duration of the research project, except for

    some occasions when they were engaged in group discussion.

    P1 Ms Khalili

    P2 Mr Tabesh

    P3 Ms Samarghandi, N.

    P4 Ms Kalanaki

    P5 Mr Orooji

    P6 Mr Jamali

    P7 Mr Omidi

    P8 Mr Ale-Mohammadi

    P9 Mr Ameli

    P10 Ms Bahrami

    P11 Mr Abasszadeh

    P12 Mr Hemmati

    P13 Mr Vaissi

    P14 Mr Vasseghi

    P15 Ms Samarghandi, P.

    P16 Mr Mamdoohi

    ii. Codes in transcription P Participant (if followed by a number it refers to a particular participant, e.g. P1)

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    Ps Some of the participants

    PS All the participants

    R/L Researcher/Lecturer (The Researcher was also the Lecturer/Instructor.)

    Bold notes/narratives

    Bold and italics Commentaries

    iii. Note-takers names and their codes NT 1 Mr Iman Rasti

    NT 2 Ms Zahra Ashegh

    NT 3 Ms Sara Najmabadi

    c. Classroom arrangement

    The map of the classroom


    P7 P8 P9















    Book case Large window

    R/Ls Desk Taperecorder

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    d. Transcription Symbols (based on Atkinson & Heritage, 1984) (.) micropause, (.2 second)

    (.5) Pause of .5 second

    : lengthened sound or syllable; more colons prolong the stretch

    - cut-off, usually a glottal stop

    .hhh inbreath

    .hhh! strong inhalation

    hhh exhalation

    hhh! strong exhalation

    hah, huh, heh, hnh laughter; followed by (!) stronger laughter

    (hhh) breathiness within a word

    . falling intonation

    ? rising intonation

    , continuing intonation

    ?, rising intonation, weaker than (?)

    ! animated intonation

    = latched utterance

    [X] overlapping talk

    % X % quiet talk

    * * creaky voice

    ^ marked rising shift in pitch

    talk slows down

    tch tongue click

    underlining emphasis

    feature of interest

    (X) transcription doubt, uncertainty

    ((X)) nonvocal action, details of scene

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    Appendix B Table 6.1. The list of the learning resources mainly utilized in the IELTS academic preparation class as

    part of the opportunities for experiencing literacy

    No Learning resources Remarks



















    IELTS How to Teach and Prepare for the Exam

    400 IELTS-based Listening Tests

    What to Say

    English Pronunciation in Use (Intermediate)

    Speaking Clearly

    Pair Work 1 (Pre-Intermediate to Intermediate)

    Pair Work 2 (Intermediate to Upper Intermediate)

    For and Against

    Developing Reading Skills (Intermediate)

    Developing Reading Skills (Advanced)

    504 Absolutely Essential Words

    English Grammar in Use (Intermediate)

    Academic Writing Course

    Practical Writer with Readings

    Cambridge IELTS 1

    Cambridge IELTS 2

    Cambridge IELTS 3

    Insight into IELTS Extra

    A single Reference book

    A single Listening test book

    One book with two cassettes/CDs

    One book with two cassettes/CDs

    One book with two cassettes/CDs

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    A single book

    One book with two cassettes/CDs

    One book with two cassettes/CDs

    One book with two cassettes/CDs

    One book with one cassette/CD

    Table 6.2. The learning resources specified to the main language skills and sub skills and their aims and

    objectives as part of learning opport