Student Resistance Claire Byrnes

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Transcript of Student Resistance Claire Byrnes

  • 1.

2. ~ Introduction ~Student Resistance: The Fourth R

  • According to the author
    • Student resistance is a continually occurring, vital, and global social phenomenon. p. 3
  • And
    • At crisis moments, students are at the center of extremely powerful sociological, political, and physical forces for which they are generally unprepared. p. 4
  • In school, students are traditionally taught the three Rs
    • R eading, W r iting and A r ithmetic
  • The author maintains that a fourth R is also taught, this beingR esistance

3. Riotus Interruptus?: Early Defiance and Medieval Violence

  • European Universities were begun for higher education, but also so that the universities could have legal and economic power over the towns in which they resided.
  • Universities benefited the towns economies as well, because the students needed goods and services that the town provided.
  • If unsatisfied their treatment in the town, the students would threaten to move the university out of town. Faced with this threat to their economy, the town would comply with the university's wishes, and the university would receive more legal and economic power over the town.
  • Often, town-and-gown struggles would occur, where students and townies attacked each other violently, often over something as small as an insult to a taverns wine. The king almost always reacted in favor of the universities, giving them more power, and punishing the townies.

4. The Student Body Inflamed

  • During the Renaissance universities blossomed.
  • Most student activism centered around political and religious debates such as the Protestant-Catholic struggle and the Reformation, as well as the Calvinist movement of discipline reform. There was not yet student radicalism present.
  • During the Enlightenment, public schools were opened, so that by 1714 everyone from the poor to the elite could receive an education.
  • Students in Germany were the first to demonstrate radicalism.Burschenshaftendeveloped all over the separate German states, with a goal to unify Germany. Assassinations and riots were used in an attempt to reach their goals. Most of these rebellions failed, but it demonstrated that students had political power.
  • In Poland, the students joined in a failed attempt to overthrow Russia.
  • In France, students rebelled against the monarchy.
  • In America, students protested slavery.

5. The Modernization of Student Power and Rise of the Student Leader

  • Students throughout continued to rebel both violently and through the spread of ideas, though many conflicts of this time were small, weak, and of little political importance.
  • In Germany, students failed in achieving a Grossdeutschland, or unified Germany, but they learned that if they could mobilize small groups effectively, they could muster massive blocks of organized power that could unite with groups of workers to topple governments.
  • In Vienna, Students managed to overthrow the government, but could not manage to successfully run the government for an extended period of time.
  • Smaller student groups with specific interests formed, which then became part of larger associations, and eventually large networks of student groups.
  • Student resistance had been active in China for centuries, with moderate success. Student activism now spread Turkey, India, and the United States.
  • In Russia, student resistance was new, but developed quickly. Strict regulations outlawed resistance groups, but the oppression only encouraged students to rebel. Student groups were responsible for many assassinations and violent rebellions, but on the whole accomplished little.

6. Success, Sabers, and Sacrifice, 1900-1919

  • All over the world, but especially in Europe, organization was the theme. As a weapon of resistance, terrorism was becoming more common, but for the most part, student resistance of this time was not political or overly violent.
  • In Russia, the same patterns of suppression and revolt continued to occur. In 1905, after a violent struggle, new freedoms were given to the students. However, just when things were looking up, their new rights were taken away.
  • In Bosnia, students were angry at the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to Austria-Hungary, and formed terrorist groups such as the Black Hand. Gavrilo Princip, a member of this group, was responsible for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, an act blamed on Serbia, which resulted in WWI.
  • In China, Japan now controlled the government and trade. Students anger at this new situation inspired the May Fourth Movement, a series of protests on and after May 4 th . As a result, China agreed to defy Japan.
  • In Latin America, most student activism involved educational reform within the universities. This was very successful in Argentina, where all student demands were met. As a result, most of Latin America adopted Argentinas reforms.

7. Reform and Terrorism in the 1920s and 1930s

  • Inspired by Argentina's success, students in Venezuela demonstrated against the Venezuelan President, Juan Vincente Gmez. They had no success at the time, but his successor gave them what they wanted.
  • In China, the two main political parties, the Chinese Communist Party, led by Mao Zedong, and the Guomindang both recruited students, though students tended to support the Guomindang. Using the students backfired, however, when they could no longer be controlled, and defied the Guomindang.
  • Anti-Imperialism was at the heart of many struggles worldwide. China and Korea tried to defy Japan, Indonesia wanted to get rid of the Dutch, andIndia and Burma hoped to sent the British packing.
  • In Germany, student groups became branches of the Nazi party, where student power could be rallied in support of Nazi agenda. Some groups attempted to stop this fascism but there was not enough support in this are to have significant effect.
  • England experienced an alarming new student movement: pacifism.
  • The United States had its fair share of student activism, though most was non-violent and unlike many parts of the world, there was no call for revolution.

8. Student Militancy and Warfare, 1940-1959

  • During WWII many universities closed, and most usual activism halted.
  • German activism was shut down during the war, and was slow to rebuild after.
  • Many French students left school to join the Resistance. During the war protest was prohibited. After the war, French students had a new cause: free Algeria.
  • In Hungary, students started a revolution that laborers, merchants, and the army supported. It was at first successful, but was shut down by the Soviets.
  • Japanese students, many members of the student group Zengakuren, demonstrated against the unconstitutional U.S.-Japan Security Treaty.
  • In China, students protested the struggle between the Maos Communist Party and the Guomindang. They favored Mao, who took control with their help.
  • India experienced non-violent resistance under Gandhi's influence, but after independence was achieved, there was no cause and little resistance.
  • Most American activism centered around anti-socialism and anti-communism.
  • Latin American activism was plentiful and violent, and often lead to reform or revolution.

9. Student Resistance in the 1960s

  • South Korea student protests against Syngman Rhees rigged reelection, lead to a revolution supported by both the public and the military. The subsequent new republic, however, was taken over by the military.
  • In Japan, students opposed U.S. imperialism in Southeast Asia and protested violently when Prime Minister Sato Eisaku appeared to be supporting the U.S.
  • In China, Mao created the Red Guard, a military group of students whose a sole purpose was to purge the country of anyone who opposed Mao or Communism.
  • In Indonesia, an anti-communist group called the Action Command of Indonesia formed. President Sukarno opposed this group, which sparked a revolution that lead to the takeover of the country by Suharto, a student-backed military leader.
  • In India, there was violent action for making Hindi the national language, and for university reform. Both causes were successful.
  • In Germany student resistance was extremely violent, but police response was just as bad. Students wanted Germany to go to Vietnam.

10. Student Resistance in the 1960s (Cont)

  • In the Netherlands most protests were entertaining and good-humored, but were very suppressed, much to the publics disappointment.
  • Czech students marched against suppression, but were shut down by the police. They did manage to gain some support, but were crushed by the Soviet military.
  • Turkeys Prime Minister Adnan Menderes attempted to purge all opposition to his repressive regime, and student protest led to military takeover of the county.
  • Mostly minor resistance occurred in South Africa, the Congo, and in Algeria. In Sudan university protests became so large that Ibrahim