StructureFunction Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Circular, flattened, biconcave shape No nucleus...

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Transcript of StructureFunction Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Circular, flattened, biconcave shape No nucleus...

  • Transport functionProtective function

    StructureFunctionRed Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Circular, flattened, biconcave shape No nucleus Contain haemoglobin Elastic. Able to turn bell shapeTransport oxygen from lungs to cells around bodyPlasma Pale yellowish liquid Contains 90% waterTransports substances such as soluble proteins (e.g. fibrinogen, prothrombin, antibodies), dissolved mineral salts (e.g. calcium), food (e.g. glucose, amino acids), excretory products (e.g. urea, carbon dioxide), hormones (e.g. insulin) around bodyWhite Blood Cells(Leucocytes) Irregular in shape Presence of nucleus Colourless. No haemoglobin Elastic. Defense body against diseasesPlatelets (Thrombocytes) Membrane-bound fragments of cytoplasm (not true cells) Blood clotting

  • Adapted from http://www.3dscience.com/img/Products/Images/clip_art/respiratory_alveoli_web.jpgAdapted fromhttp://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/fifthgrade/bodysys/alveoli2.jpgAlveoli in lungsDeoxygenated blood is brought back to the lungs through pulmonary arteries.Oxygenated blood is brought out of the lungs through pulmonary veins.Transport function

  • Adapted from http://www.3dscience.com/img/Products/Images/clip_art/respiratory_alveoli_web.jpgAdapted fromhttp://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/fifthgrade/bodysys/alveoli2.jpgAlveoli in lungsOxygen diffuses from the alveoli (higher concentration of oxygen) to blood capillaries (lower concentration of oxygen), down a concentration gradient. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood capillaries (higher concentration of oxygen) to alveoli (lower concentration of oxygen).Transport function

  • Adapted from http://www.3dscience.com/img/Products/Images/clip_art/respiratory_alveoli_web.jpgAdapted fromhttp://www1.bellevuepublicschools.org/curriculum/k6web/fifthgrade/bodysys/alveoli2.jpgAlveoli in lungsOxygen diffuses from the alveoli (higher concentration of oxygen) to blood capillaries (lower concentration of oxygen), down a concentration gradient. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood capillaries (higher concentration of oxygen) to alveoli (lower concentration of oxygen).Transport function

  • CellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellRBCRBCArterioleCapillariesVenuleExchange of substancesUseful materials such as glucose and oxygen are transported from plasma /RBC (higher concentration) to tissue fluid (lower concentration), down a concentration gradient, by diffusion. The useful materials in the tissue fluid will diffuse to the cells when concentration of these useful materials in the tissue fluid becomes higher than that in the cells. Osmosis will also occur.Transport function

  • CellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellCellRBCRBCArterioleCapillariesVenuleExchange of substancesWaste products such as carbon dioxide and urea are transported from cells (higher concentration) to tissue fluid (lower concentration), down a concentration gradient, by diffusion. The waste products in the tissue fluid will diffuse to the plasma when concentration of the waste products in tissue fluid is higher than plasma.Transport function

  • Transport functionHow is a molecule of oxygen being transported from lungs to the liver cell?As RBC moves through the capillaries in the lungs, oxygen diffuses from the alveoli (higher concentration) into RBC (lower concentration).Haemoglobin in RBC binds with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin.Blood transports oxyhaemoglobin to all tissues in the body.Oxyhaemoglobin releases its oxygen to tissues containing very little oxygen by diffusion.Rearrange!

  • Transport functionProtective function

    StructureFunctionRed Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Circular, flattened, biconcave shape No nucleus Contain haemoglobin Elastic. Able to turn bell shapeTransport oxygen from lungs to cells around bodyPlasma Pale yellowish liquid Contains 90% waterTransports substances such as soluble proteins (e.g. fibrinogen, prothrombin, antibodies), dissolved mineral salts (e.g. calcium), food (e.g. glucose, amino acids), excretory products (e.g. urea, carbon dioxide), hormones (e.g. insulin) around bodyWhite Blood Cells(Leucocytes) Irregular in shape Presence of nucleus Colourless. No haemoglobin Elastic. Defense body against diseasesPlatelets (Thrombocytes) Membrane-bound fragments of cytoplasm (not true cells) Blood clotting

  • Protective functionPhagocytosisAntibody productionBlood Clotting

  • Protective functionBlood Clotting Damaged tissues and blood platelets release thrombokinase (enzyme). In the presence of calcium ions, thrombokinase catalyses conversion of inactive prothrombin to active thrombin (enzyme). Thrombokinase neutralises action of heparin (anti-clotting substance in blood). Thrombin catalyses conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin threads. Insoluble fibrin threads entangle blood cells. A clot and scab is formed. Platelets adhere to the cut edges. Platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets. Formation of platelet plug prevents external bleeding.When blood vessels are damaged,

  • Protective functionPhagocytosis Phagocyte engulfs foreign particle. Foreign particle will be digested by phagocyte. Phagocyte flows over to the foreign particle.Adapted from http://www.cutiegadget.com/pict/pacman-plush.jpg

  • Protective functionAntibody production Lymphocyte releases antibodies. Antibodies can - rupture bacteria - agglutinate bacteria such that they will be easily digested by phagocytes - neutralise harmful products produced by bacteria - prevent viruses from attaching to host cells by attaching to them Disease causing micro-organisms in blood stream.

  • * Hexa (Six-in-One)includes Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis (DTaP) Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) Inactivated Polio (IPV) Hepatitis B** Diphtheria/Pertussis/Tetanus (DTaP),Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib) & Polio (IPV)Vaccination: Injection of dead foreign bodies into humans to stimulate lymphocytes into secreting antibodiesAdapted from http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_lm2JI7sGwYI/SZUGTvIT7RI/AAAAAAAAEkQ/14mCG1Y2RX0/s400/vaccination(5).jpg

    AgeVaccineAt birthBCG (for tuberculosis) Hepatitis B - 1st dose2month*Hexa (Six-in-One)4months** DTaP/ IPV/ Hib6 monthsHexa (Six-in-One)12 monthsHepatitis B Booster for childrenof Hepatitis B carrier mothers only15 monthsMMR (Measles/Mumps/Rubella)18 monthsDTaP/ IPV/ Hib - 1st booster6 yearsDT 2nd booster Oral Sabin - 2nd booster (oral polio vaccine)12 yearsDT 3rd booster Oral Sabin - 3rd booster MMR - 2nd dose

  • Amount of antibodies in blood2nd exposure to the same foreign bodies1st exposure to foreign bodiesGraph (1st exposure to foreign bodies): Lymphocytes respond to foreign bodies by producing antibodies.Graph (2nd exposure to foreign bodies): - More antibodies - Response is faster

  • Protective functionPhagocytosisAntibody productionBlood ClottingWhat will happen when tissue or organ transplant occur?

  • Blood group?Types of antigensTypes of antibodiesClassified according to

  • What is a blood group?Antigen A Antigen B Antigen A and BNo antigensAntibody b Antibody aNo antibodyAntibodies a and bAntibodies are also proteinsDifferent from antibodies produced by lymphocytesPlasma antibodies of recipient cannot react with antigens from donor.

  • Blood Type OType Os are outgoing, and very social. They are initiators, although they dont always finish what they start. Creative and popular, they love to be the center of attention and appear very self confident.

    Blood Type AWhile outwardly calm, they have such high standards (perfectionists) that they tend to be balls of nerves on the inside. Type As are the most artistic of the blood groups. They can be shy, are conscientious, trustworthy, and sensitive.

    Blood Type BGoal oriented and strong minded, type Bs will start a task and continue it until completed, and completed well. Type Bs are the individualists of the blood group categories and find their own way in life.

    Blood Type ABType ABs are the split personalities of the blood groups. They can be both outgoing and shy, confident and timid. While responsible, too much responsibility will cause a problem. They are trustworthy and like to help others.Adapted from http://www.recipeapart.com/blood-type-reveals-personality/

  • Partially permeableAllows small molecules to move through. Elastic molecules maybe able to squeeze through as well.What is the structure of capillaries?What does partially permeable mean?What are the small or elastic molecules in blood?- Plasma (water + small soluble molecules) - WBCWhat are the big or less elastic molecules in blood?- RBC - Plasma proteins

    Formation of tissue fluid

  • Remaining tissue fluid is collected by lymphatic vessels. The fluid in lymphatic system is known as lymph. Lymph will be emptied to blood circulation through a vein near heart.

  • Summary

    Which region, A, B or C has a higher concentration of oxygen or carbon dioxide?Exercising Heat is being distributed by blood to all parts of the body.Platelet plug helps to stop external bleedinge, prevents entry of bacteria.Antibodies vs antibioticsAntigen A and antibody a will agglutinate (clumping of blood). This will bl