Structure and Function of the Cell pt II

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Structure and Function of the Cell pt II. Objectives. Describe the function of the cell nucleus Describe the function of the major cell organelles Describe the function of the cell wall Describe the theory of Endosymbiosis. Cytoskeleton. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Structure and Function of the Cell pt II

  • ObjectivesDescribe the function of the cell nucleusDescribe the function of the major cell organellesDescribe the function of the cell wallDescribe the theory of Endosymbiosis

  • CytoskeletonThe cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that help the cell maintain its shapeThis also is involved in movementPrinciple protein filaments are:MicrofilamentsMicrotubules

  • MicrofilamentsMicrofilaments:Are made of the protein actinHelp the cell maintain its shapeHelp cells movePseudopods are temporary projections of eukaryotic cells

  • Microtubules Microtubules:Important in cell divisionSpindle fibers are bundles of microtubules that help move the chromosomes during cell divisionIn Animal cells centrioles located near the nucleus help in cell division

  • Cilia & Flagella

  • *Cytoskeleton is also used as a means of mobility. This unicellular algae have extensions of flagella that are anchored in the cell membrane.

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  • CiliaConnection: How does cilia help with the surface area issue? What is the cilia used for here in the trachea?

  • NucleusNuclear matrix helps it maintain its shapeControl center or brain of the cellNuclear envelope surrounds the nucleusThe chromatin inside the nucleus condenses prior to cell division to form chromosomesSmall openings called nuclear pores allow RNA to pass from the nucleus to the cytosol

  • NucleolusWhere ribosomes are madeTour of an Animal Cell .mov

  • Plant CellsPlant cells can have three structures that animal cells do notCell wallsVacuolesPlastids

  • Cell WallAll cells are surrounded by a thin, flexible membranePlant cells also have a cell wall surrounding the membrane

  • PlastidsSome store starch or fats, others contain pigmentsMost common type is the chloroplastSurrounded by two membranes and have their own DNACapture energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy PhotosynthesisTour of a Plant Cell .mov

  • EndosymbiosisEndosymbiosis is a hypothesis that states mitochondria and chloroplast were originally prokaryotes and that a symbiotic relationship evolved

  • Comparing Animal Cells to Plant Cells

  • *Similarities between plant cells and animal cellsBoth have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasmBoth have a nucleusBoth contain mitochondria

  • *Differences between plant cells and animal cellsAnimal cellsPlant cellsRelatively smaller in sizeIrregular Shape No cell wallRelatively larger in sizeRegular shapeCell wall present

  • ReviewDescribe the function of the cell nucleusThe nucleus contains most of the cells DNA and with it the codes instructions for making proteins and other important moleculesDescribe the function of the major cell organellesNucleolus- where the assembly of ribosomes begins

  • ReviewChloroplast- capture energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy (food)Cytoskeleton- helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in movementVacuoles- take up space and provide storage

  • ReviewDescribe the function of the cell wallProvide support and protection for the cellDescribe the theory of EndosymbiosisEndosymbiosis is a hypothesis that states mitochondria and chloroplast were originally prokaryotes and that a symbiotic relationship evolved

    *Figure 4.18A Cilia on cells lining the respiratory tract.