Stretching for Functional Flexibility

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  • Stretching for FunctionalFlexibility

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  • Phil Armiger, MPTLicensed Physical TherapistG-2 Sports TherapySeattle, Washington

    Michael A. MartynIllustrator and Fitness ProfessionalMartyn IllustrationRenton, Washington

    Stretching for FunctionalFlexibility

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  • Acquisitions Editor: Emily LupashManaging Editor: Andrea M. KlinglerDevelopment Editor: David R. PayneMarketing Manager: Christen D. MurphyProduction Editor: Beth MartzSenior Designer: Joan WendtCompositor: Circle GraphicsArtwork: Michael Martyn

    Copyright 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business.

    351 West Camden Street 530 Walnut StreetBaltimore, MD 21201 Philadelphia, PA 19106

    Printed in the Peoples Republic of China

    All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced or trans-mitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies,or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copy-right owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearingin this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U.S. government employees arenot covered by the above-mentioned copyright. To request permission, please contact LippincottWilliams & Wilkins at 530 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, via email at permissions@lww.com,or via website at lww.com (products and services).

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Armiger, Phil.Stretching for functional flexibility / Phil Armiger ; [illustrated by] Michael A. Martyn.

    p. ; cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-7817-6792-7 (alk. paper)1. Stretching exercises. 2. JointsRange of motion. I. Title.[DNLM: 1. Muscle Stretching Exercisesmethods. 2. Range of Motion, Articular. WB 541

    A729s 2010]RA781.63.A76 2010613.7'1dc22

    2008033728

    DISCLAIMERCare has been taken to confirm the accuracy of the information present and to describe generally acceptedpractices. However, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or forany consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty, expressed orimplied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of the publication.Application of this information in a particular situation remains the professional responsibility of thepractitioner; the clinical treatments described and recommended may not be considered absolute anduniversal recommendations.

    The authors, editors, and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosageset forth in this text are in accordance with the current recommendations and practice at the time of pub-lication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flowof information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insertfor each drug for any change in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This isparticularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug.

    Some drugs and medical devices presented in this publication have Food and Drug Administration (FDA)clearance for limited use in restricted research settings. It is the responsibility of the health care providerto ascertain the FDA status of each drug or device planned for use in their clinical practice.

    To purchase additional copies of this book, call our customer service department at (800) 638-3030 orfax orders to (301) 223-2320. International customers should call (301) 223-2300.

    Visit Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the Internet: http://www.lww.com. Lippincott Williams & Wilkinscustomer service representatives are available from 8:30 am to 6:00 pm, EST.

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  • To my mother, Carole Armiger, who gave everything she had to see that her children hadeverything they needed.

    Shell have to read the book and stretch in heaven, and Ill have to remember to put acoat on before going out in the coldall by myself.

    Phil Armiger

    To my best friend, Tim Burris, who at the beginning of every phone conversation asked,Is it done yet? I wish I could have told you, Yes, Timmy, its finally done.

    Mike Martyn

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    Preface

    tretching for Functional Flexibility is intended as a reference guide for thesafe, effective, and efficient application of stretching exercises to improve rangeof motion and movement potential. It is organized to be useful both for the clin-ical professional and, ultimately, for the end user. Based on the most currentresearch and on the clinical experience of the author and his colleagues in thefield of physical therapy, Stretching for Functional Flexibility will be a valuablereference for physical, occupational, and massage therapists, athletic trainers, fitnesstrainers, coaches, sports and orthopedic physicians, doctors of chiropractic, and manyother professionals dealing with the health and performance of the musculoskeletalsystem.

    Stretching for Functional Flexibility was inspired by the need for consistent, research-based, and/or clinically based information regarding stretching. Widely varying theoriesand protocols seemed to beg for an accurate, easy-to-use, scientifically based work on thepursuit of flexibility. This book provides the user or lay person with clear, easy-to-useinformation, which will help improve the appropriate ranges of motion and, ultimately,improve movement.

    With this goal in mind, all stretching directions are written in the second person,directly addressing lay people who are seeking to improve their flexibility. However,as noted above, this book also addresses the needs of healthcare professionals whomay be recommending or even instructing their clients in stretching exercises. In thiscase, the directions are already in a format in which professionals can pass on to theirclients. Furthermore, professionals are encouraged to practice the stretches themselvesbefore teaching them to their clients.

    This book is designed not only to improve flexibility and range of motion, butalso to help the reader understand which muscles and joints need attention in thelarger context of human posture and biomechanics. In this regard, information isprovided that will help the reader understand how the need for range of motion fitsinto the scheme of efficient movement. This text provides simple tests to help deter-mine which muscles need to be stretched and which do not. It also provides infor-mation about the muscles in question, including what the muscle does (action), itsorigin, and its insertion. In this manner, the clinician may become re-acquaintedwith particular muscles and their function and make better decisions about the pre-scription of individual exercises.

    FOR THE CLINICIANAn excellent quick reference for both general muscle groups and individual muscles,this text also provides clear artwork and text, detailing the stretching exercises. It alsoprovides the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of each muscle covered.

    S

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  • FOR THE EDUCATORThis book can be used as required or as a supplemental text for many programs thatcover the topic of stretching. In addition to the details mentioned above, it includesstretching protocols, as well as the research behind them.

    Also included are chapters on injury prevention and rehabilitation, determiningwhich muscles need to be stretched, and an appendix with suggestions for furtherreading.

    FOR THE INDIVIDUALThis book provides all of the information necessary to allow the lay person to designand implement a safe and effective stretching program. Posture and work-relatedconcerns and interventions are each covered in their own chapters. Chapter 6 out-lines basic stretching programs that may be completed in 10, 20, or 30 minutes.

    UNIQUE FEATURESBelow are some of the features of this book that make it unique:1. Science: The information in this text is based on the most up-to-date research

    available on each particular topic of discussion. Older and classic research isincluded, in cases in which it is the most up-to-date research on a particular topic.

    2. Proven Techniques and Principles: Techniques and principles are proven daily in a successful outpatient orthopedic physical therapy clinic. Information and pro-tocols are based on the available, related medical literature. References are included.These practices are uncommon or non-existent in other works on stretching/flexibility.

    3. Artwork: Clear, accurate drawings represent not only the relevant anatomy, but alsoclearly depict the positions necessary to perform the individual stretches. In Chap-ter 4, the individual muscles can be seen through the body, in the stretchingposition.

    4. Easy to Use: The organization of the text is straight forward and moves from thefundamentals necessary to understand stretching to basic stretches and finallyinto special applications. A Users Guide is provided below.

    5. Stretch the Right Muscle: Chapter 3 provides a guide to help you choose whichmuscles to stretch and which to de-emphasize or leave alone completely. Itincludes a list of quick and easy tests to determine flexibility need for many ofthe major joints of the body.

    6. General-to-Specific Stretches: General stretches for all major muscle groups areprovided in Chapter 5