Stretching and Flexibility
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Stretching - Static
KH2520Georgia State UniversityStretching and FlexibilityWarm-upGeneral warm up 5-10 min Fast walk/slow jogging or stationary bike
Specific warm-up incorporates movements similar to exercise or sport being performedWhat is flexibility?The absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment
Being innately flexible is a myth!
Tony Horton on flexibilityhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmPWLLY5rD4Factors affecting flexibilityResistance training should train agonist and antagonist muscle groups to ensure muscle balanceAlways train through the full ROMRange of Motion (ROM) is the distance that a movable object may normally travel while properly attached to another
Muscle bulk does affect ROMNot uncommon in large, anaerobic athletes (deltoids, biceps) which may impede weight-training through full ROMStretching can ROM
Factors affecting flexibilityExternalTemperatureGenderClothing/EquipmentAgeRecovery StageInternalType of jointTemperature of jointElasticity of muscles, tendons, and ligaments
Stretching guidelinesResearch shows stretching 2x/week for 5 weeks increases flexibility5-6 min general warm-up (cycle, arm ergometer)8-12 min sports-specific stretching (leg kicks or dynamic shoulder movements, etc.)4-5 min general stretching
Static stretching should occur after exercising, practice, or competitionTypes of stretchingActive stretch person stretching applies force of stretchingTouching toe stretch force is supplied by athlete through lean forward (hold the stretch)
Passive stretch partner or machine provides force of stretchingPartner hamstring stretch
Types of stretchingStatic stretch (type of passive stretch) slow, constant stretch held for 30-40 secNo stretch reflex elicited
Ballistic stretch bouncing type movement with muscular effort and end position is not held (ex. bouncing toe touches)Ballistic jumps by a hurdler before a raceTRIGGERS STRETCH REFLEX and isnt preferred for increasing ROMhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXjK49c69Qg
Dynamic stretch controlled dynamic stretching that mimics sports movement (ex. leg swings, arm swings, torso twists)Long walking strides performed by a hurdler to increase hip ROM prior to racehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQfjEPKNcyshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gm99m-qn7aMTypes of stretchingProprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretchInvolves partnerBoth active and passive stretchingSuperior to other stretches for increasing ROM
PNF Stretching Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRMFBZRy5OMTypes of stretchingPNF:Hold-relax example (most effective according to book)First phase is 10 sec passive stretchSecond phase is isometric hold against partner for 6 secThird phase is increased stretching (due to GTO stimulation) for 30 secDynamic vs Static-Stretching Warm Up
ConclusionsStretching may reduce the risk of sports injury
Acute static stretching prior to exercise may decrease performance
Chronic stretching following practice appears to enhance sports performanceKH 2520: Principles of Physical Activity and FitnessStatic StretchingStatic StretchingA form of stretching in which a stretched position is held for a given duration (15-60 s).
Static stretching avoids forced movements that can provoke a stretch reflex
Static Stretching Example:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMyQ6-EJGxwTypes of Static StretchesPassive - a form of static stretching in which an external force exerts upon the limb to move it into the new position
Active - eliminates force and its adverse effects from stretching procedures by allowing the limb to move through a full range of motion while stretchingStretching - StaticWarm upDetermine appropriate stretching exercises for target muscle/muscle groupAssume stretching position to the point of mild to moderate tensionNo pain or discomfort
Hold position for 15 60 secondsRelaxed, slow breathingDo not hold breathTrunk TwistHamstring
Stretching - StaticCalfChest
Stretching - StaticShoulderQuadriceps
Stretching - StaticForearmTricep
Stretching - StaticInner thighBack
Stretching - StaticStatic stretching directly after weight training has been found to increase muscular growthStrengthen what you stretch, and stretch after you strengthen!-Judy AlterStatic StretchingWhat is Dynamic StretchingDynamic stretching consists of functional based exercises which use sport specific movements to prepare the body for movement.
It involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing ROM, speed of movement, or bothWhat is Dynamic Stretching continued..Dynamic stretching consists of controlled movements that take you (gently!) to the limits of your range of motion
In dynamic stretches, there are no bounces or "jerky" movements.Stretching DynamicWarm upDetermine appropriate stretching exercises for target muscle/muscle groupMove through full range of motion
Benefits of Dynamic StretchingFull Body Warm Up
Improves Kinesthetic Awareness
Improves FlexibilityOrder of StretchingBeginning- Dynamic warm up
Middle- Actual workout
End- Cool down/static stretching
Ballistic StretchingBallistic stretching uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion.
This is stretching, or "warming up", by bouncing into (or out of) a stretched position, using the stretched muscles as a spring which pulls you out of the stretched position.PNF Stretching
What is PNF?PNF -- or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation -- exercises involve stretching a muscle or group of muscles, contracting the same muscle isometrically for at least three seconds, and then stretching it farther.
Example of PNF stretching on your ownhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrbDxgFSocE
Hold-RelaxA partner moves the extended leg to a point of mild discomfort. This passive stretch is held for 10 seconds. On instruction, the subject isometrically contracts the hamstrings by pushing their extended leg against their partner's hand. The partner should apply just enough force so that the leg remains static. This is the 'hold' phase and lasts for 6 seconds.The subject is then instructed to 'relax' and the partner completes a second passive stretch held for 30 seconds. The extended leg should move further than before (greater hip flexion) due to autogenic inhibition activated in the hamstrings.
Types of stretchingPNF: Hold-relax example (most effective)First phase is 10 sec passive stretchSecond phase is isometric hold against partner for 6 secThird phase is increased stretching (due to GTO stimulation) for 30 sec
What other activities improve flexibility?
YogaGirls AND Guys do Yoga!Focuses on mind-body connectionInvolves physical postures and exercises along with mental exercises like breathing, meditation, and relaxationHealthy mind & healthy bodyStretching and Relaxation
Benefits of YogaHelps one control mind, body, and soulHelps manage stress and anxiety through relaxationIncreases flexibility, muscle strength, and body toneImproves respiration, energy, and vitalityIncreases self-awarenessHelps with focus and attentionEnhances personal power!
Beginner Yoga Examples
PMR ExampleProgressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR)
Control breathing (6-8 breaths/minute)Relax muscles in each part of body progressivelyGoal is to experience no tension in bodyHelps to relax specific areas of tension
Stretching and Relaxation
Benefits of PMRDecreases overall stress levelEasy to learn and practice at home with no cost!Decreases heart rate and breathing rateLowers blood pressureIncreases concentrationIncreases blood flowReduces anger and frustrationIncreases confidence
What is it?Meditation in motionLow-impact, slow-motion exercisesInvolve deep breathing and focus on sensations in musclesCircular movementsRelaxed muscles (never tensed)Research offers a compelling case for tai chi as an adjunct to standard medical treatment for the prevention and rehabilitation of many conditions commonly associated with age." -Harvard Medical SchoolTai ChiPilatesPrinciples of PilatesEmphasizes balance of the body through:core strength, flexibility, and awarenessFocuses on precision rather than high reps
Centering- bring focus to center of bodyConcentration-each exercise deserves full attentionControl- no body part is left to its own devicesPrecision-placement, alignment, and trajectory are key!Breath-full and coordinated breathingFlow-fluid movements help the body feel connectedPilatesBenefits of Pilates
Increases strength, lean muscle, muscular endurance, and muscular awareness. Low impact nature that does not induce inflammation of muscles and jointsIncreases flexibilityIncreases relaxation and breathingGreat method of cross-training (helps teach the body efficient and balanced movement)
What other activities improve flexibility?Yoga! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2-CLZLqo4A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CU3HuPNsyG4
Tai Chi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsnUam5VsYw
Water Aerobics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBbA4-EhNf8
Dance (Zumba anyone!?) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r7rPI_y0HBEBeginner Yoga Stretcheshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXco3MpWFDoQUIZ!!!What does PMR stand for?
What are two benefits of Yoga?