Stoichiometry and Process Calculations K v Narayanan and B Lakshmikutty

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Transcript of Stoichiometry and Process Calculations K v Narayanan and B Lakshmikutty

  • Scilab Textbook Companion forStoichiometry And Process Calculations

    by K. V. Narayanan And B. Lakshmikutty1

    Created byJimit Dilip PatelFOURTH YEAR

    Chemical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute Of Technology

    College TeacherDr. Sachin Mandavagane

    Cross-Checked by

    August 10, 2013

    1Funded by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT,http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilabcodes written in it can be downloaded from the Textbook Companion Projectsection at the website http://scilab.in

  • Book Description

    Title: Stoichiometry And Process Calculations

    Author: K. V. Narayanan And B. Lakshmikutty

    Publisher: Prentice Hall Of India, New Delhi

    Edition: 1

    Year: 2006

    ISBN: 81-203-2992-9

    1

  • Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to theabove book.

    Exa Example (Solved example)

    Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book)

    AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particularExample of the above book)

    For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 meansa scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

    2

  • Contents

    List of Scilab Codes 4

    2 Units and Dimensions 11

    3 Fundamental concepts of stoichiometry 16

    4 Ideal Gases and Gas Mixtures 28

    5 Properties of Real Gases 40

    6 Vapour Pressure 47

    7 Solutions and Phase Behaviour 53

    8 Humidity and Humidity chart 68

    9 Material Balance in Unit Operations 83

    10 Material Balance with Chemical Reaction 101

    11 Energy Balance Thermophysics 126

    12 Energy Balance Thermochemistry 152

    3

  • List of Scilab Codes

    Exa 2.1 Mass flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Exa 2.2 Poundal to Newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Exa 2.3 Conversion of N per m2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Exa 2.4 Thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Exa 2.5 Mass and FPS system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Exa 2.6 Kinetic energy calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Exa 2.7 Force and pressure for piston cylinder . . . . . . . . . 13Exa 2.8 units conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Exa 2.9 units conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Exa 3.1 pounds per minute to kmol per hour . . . . . . . . . . 16Exa 3.2 Number of molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Exa 3.3 Moles of sodium sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Exa 3.4 Pyrites and oxygen moles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Exa 3.5 Volume of oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Exa 3.6 Reaction of iron and steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Exa 3.7 Equivalent weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Exa 3.8 Specific gravity calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Exa 3.9 Specific gravity of mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Exa 3.10 Baume scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Exa 3.11 Density using API scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Exa 3.12 Drying Ammonium sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Exa 3.13 Percentage of water removed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Exa 3.14 Amount and percentage water removed . . . . . . . . 22Exa 3.15 NaCl solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Exa 3.16 Molal absolute humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Exa 3.17 K2CO3 solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Exa 3.18 Molarity and Molality of Alcohol solution . . . . . . . 24Exa 3.19 CO to phosgene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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  • Exa 3.20 Extent of reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Exa 3.21 ethylene to ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Exa 4.1 gas constant R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Exa 4.2 Molar volume of air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Exa 4.3 Ideal gas equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Exa 4.4 Maximum allowable temperature of tyre . . . . . . . . 29Exa 4.5 Pressure calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Exa 4.6 weight composition and density calculation . . . . . . 30Exa 4.7 calculations for natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Exa 4.8 Volume of gas from absorption columnn . . . . . . . . 32Exa 4.9 dehumidification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Exa 4.10 Absorption column for H2S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Exa 4.11 Reaction stoichiometry for preparation of ammonia . . 34Exa 4.12 Reaction stoichiometry for preparation of producer gas 35Exa 4.13 Reaction stoichiometry for preparation of Chlorine from

    HCl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Exa 4.14 Reaction stoichiometry for dissociation of Carbon Diox-

    ide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Exa 5.1 Van der waals equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Exa 5.2 Van der waals equation for CO2 gas . . . . . . . . . . 40Exa 5.3 Redlich Kwong equation for gaseous ammonia . . . . . 41Exa 5.4 Molar Volume calculation for gaseous ammonia . . . . 41Exa 5.5 virial equation of state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Exa 5.6 Lyderson method for n butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Exa 5.7 Pitzer correlation for n butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Exa 5.8 Molar volume by different methods . . . . . . . . . . . 43Exa 5.9 Van der waals equation and Kays method . . . . . . . 45Exa 6.1 Quality of steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47Exa 6.2 Calculation of vapour pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47Exa 6.3 Clausius Clapeyron equation for acetone . . . . . . . . 48Exa 6.4 Antoine equation for n heptane . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Exa 6.5 Cox chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Exa 6.6 Duhring line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Exa 7.1 composition calculation of Liquid and vapour at equi-

    librium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Exa 7.2 Composition and total pressure calculation . . . . . . 53Exa 7.3 Mole fraction calculation for particular component in

    liquid vapour mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    5

  • Exa 7.4 Flash vapourization of benzene toluene mixture . . . . 55Exa 7.5.a Boiling point diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Exa 7.5.b Equilibrium Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Exa 7.6 Bubble point temperature and vapour composition . . 58Exa 7.7 Dew point temperature pressure and concentration . . 58Exa 7.8 Partial pressure of acetaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Exa 7.9 Raults law application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Exa 7.10 Dew point temperature and pressure . . . . . . . . . . 61Exa 7.11 bubble point and dew point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Exa 7.12 component calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Exa 7.13 equilibrium temperature and composition . . . . . . . 65Exa 7.14 Temperature composition diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 65Exa 7.15 Boiling point calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Exa 8.1 Nitrogen and ammonia gas mixture . . . . . . . . . . . 68Exa 8.2 Benzene vapour air mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Exa 8.3 Evaporation of acetone using dry air . . . . . . . . . . 69Exa 8.4 Humidity for acetone vapour and nitrogen gas mixture 70Exa 8.5 Percent saturation and relative saturation . . . . . . . 71Exa 8.6 Analysis of Moist air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Exa 8.7 Heating value calculation for a fuel gas . . . . . . . . . 72Exa 8.8 Analysis of nitrogen benzene mixture . . . . . . . . . . 73Exa 8.9 Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Exa 8.10 Saturation lines for hexane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Exa 8.11 Psychometric chart application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Exa 8.12 Humid heat calculation for a sample of air . . . . . . . 77Exa 8.14 wet bulb temperature and dry bulb temperature . . . 78Exa 8.15 Humidity calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Exa 8.16 SAturation curve and adiabatic cooling line . . . . . . 79Exa 8.17 Adiabatic drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Exa 8.18 Psychometric chart application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81Exa 8.19 Psychometric chart application and given wet bulb and

    dry bulb temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82Exa 9.1 Combustion of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83Exa 9.2 Drying of wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83Exa 9.3 Euent discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Exa 9.4 benzene requirement calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Exa 9.5 Fortification of waste acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Exa 9.6 Triple effect evaporator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    6

  • Exa 9.7 Crystallization operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Exa 9.8 Evaporation of Na2CO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Exa 9.9 Crystallization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Exa 9.10 Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Exa 9.11 Leaching operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Exa 9.12 Dryer and oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90Exa 9.13 Adiabatic drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91Exa 9.14 Extraction of isopropyl alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92Exa 9.15 Absorption of acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93Exa 9.16 Absorption of SO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Exa 9.17 Continuous distillation column . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Exa 9.18 Distillation operation for methanol solution . . . . . . 95Exa 9.19 Bypass operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Exa 9.20 Recycle operation centrifuge plus filter . . . . . . . . . 97Exa 9.21 Recycle operation granulator and drier . . . . . . . . . 98Exa 9.22 Blowdown operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .