Stem Cell Therapy Ppt

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STEM CELL THERAPYPresented by Mrs. S.Jeyalakshmi, M Sc (N), Asst. ProfessorPowerpoint Templates Page 1

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STEM CELLSStem cells are the bodys master cells Primitive cells Stem cells has the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types.

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STEM CELLSRare Stem cells that are found in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood are called Hematopoietic Stem Cells These are building blocks of the blood and immune systems.Powerpoint Templates

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Cell differentiation

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History of stem cells Stem cells themselves have actually been around for almost as long as life has been on earth. In essence all life evolved from stem cells of some kind. Stem cell field research developed from studies in the 1960s by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till .Powerpoint Templates

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Forty-four years later, they have been honoured with the 2005 Albert Lasker award for Basic Medical Research, an award often referred to as "America's Nobel."

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Drs. Ernest McCulloch (left) and James Till(Irma Council for the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame)

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History of Human Stem Cell Research In 1968, the first bone marrow transplant was successfully used in treatment of SCID Since the 1970s, bone marrow transplants have been used for treatment of immunodeficiencies and leukemias

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Bone Marrow Stem Cells

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History of Human Embryonic Cell Research 1954 John Enders received a Nobel prize in Medicine for growing polio virus in human embryonic kidney cells

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History of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research In 1998, James Thomson (University of WisconsinMadison) isolated cells from the inner cell mass of the early embryo, and developed the first human embryonic stem cell lines. In 1998, John Gearhart (Johns Hopkins University) derived human embryonic germ cells from cells in fetal gonadal tissue (primordial germ cells).

Pluripotent stem cell lines were developed from both sources

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History of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (Cloning) 1952 Briggs and King cloned tadpoles 1996 The first mammal cloned from adult cells was Dolly, the sheep. 1998 Mice cloned

1998 Cows cloned 2000 Pigs clonedPowerpoint Templates Page 13

History of Cloning 2001 Cat cloned

CC Carbon Copy

2002 Rabbits cloned 2003 Mule cloned 2004 Bull serial-cloned 2005 Dog cloned

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Kinds of Stem CellsStem cell typeTotipotent

Description

Examples

Cells from early Each cell can develop (1-3 days) into a new individual embryos Cells can form any (over 200) cell types Some cells of blastocyst (5 to 14 days)

Pluripotent

Multipotent

Cells differentiated, Fetal tissue, cord but can form a number blood, and adult of other tissues stem cellsPowerpoint Templates

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Types of Stem cells1. Embryonic stem cells 2. Adult stem cells

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Embryonic stem cellDerived from the inner cell mass Pluripotent Can develop into more than 200 different cells Differentiate into cells of the 3 germ cell layers Because of their capacity of unlimited expansion and pluripotency useful in regenerative medicinePowerpoint Templates Page 17

Two Sources of Embryonic Stem Cells1. Excess fertilized eggs from IVF (in-vitro fertilization) clinics 2. Therapeutic cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer)

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Excess fertilized eggs from IVF (in-vitro fertilization) clinics Tens of thousands of frozen embryos are routinely destroyed when couples finish their treatment. These surplus embryos can be used to produce stem cells. Regenerative medical research aims to develop these cells into new, healthy tissue to heal severe illnesses.Powerpoint Templates Page 19

Therapeutic cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer)The nucleus of a donated egg is removed and replaced with the nucleus of a mature, "somatic cell" (a skin cell, for example). No sperm is involved in this process, and no embryo is created to be implanted in a woman s womb. The resulting stem cells can potentially develop into specialized cells that are useful for treating severe illnesses.Powerpoint Templates Page 20

Tissue or adult stem cellsThey produce cells specific to the tissue in which they are found They are relatively unspecialized However they are predetermined to give rise to specific cell types when they differentiate Eg: haematopoietic, bone marrow, neural

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Other types of stem cellsUmbilical cord blood stem cells Cord blood that is taken from the umbilical cord after the baby is born contains stem cells. Cord blood stem cells can grow a complete immune system of blood cells.Powerpoint Templates Page 22

Induced pluripotent stem cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state

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Properties of Stem cells Self renewal - the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. Potency the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types.

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Totipotent stem cells (Total) Cells produced by the first few divisions of the cell . So can form any cell of the embryo as well as the placenta. Total potential to differentiate into any adult cell type Total potential to form specialized tissue needed for embryonic developmentPowerpoint Templates Page 25

Pluripotent (plural) Potential to form most or all 210 differentiated adult cell types These cells differentiate into cells derived from the three germ cell layers. Eg: embryonic stem cell, embryonic germ cell and embryonic carcinoma cells.

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Multipotent (multiple) Limited potential Forms only multiple adult cell types (These cells can produce cells of a closely related family of cells). Eg: haematopoeitic stem cells, neural and mesenchymal stem cellsPowerpoint Templates Page 27

Unipotent these cells only produce one cell type., but have the property of self renewal which distinguishes them from the non stem cells.

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Resources of Stem cellsUmbilical Cord Bone Marrow Peripheral Blood Amniotic Fluid Adipose Tissue Embryonic

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Application of stem cellsA. Stem cell research:1. It provides an ideal model for the study of development of organisms 2. It replaces damaged cells of the body 3. It also aids in drug discovery

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B. Regenerative medicine

and C. Therapeutic issues

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Therapeutic applications of embryonal stem cells ES cell The potential to form 200 or more cells. Hence used in regenerative medicine in cases like cardiac failure, Parkinsons disease, diabetes. These cells are being coaxed to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, neural stem cells, insulin producing cell and even germ cells.Powerpoint Templates Page 34

Fetal stem cells Hematopoietic stem cell:- characterized by the presence of CD 34 Seen in the umbilical cord and fetal liver - Have a higher cloning efficiency and generates more progenitors than adult bone marrow. - They have a huge competitive engraftment advantage relative to the adult bone marrow. - Fetal liver is now used to treat fetuses having X-Linked SCID.Powerpoint Templates Page 35

Haematopoietic stem cells used in patients whose haematopoietic system has to be replaced They are used in 1.Providing a functional immune system in a person with SCID. 2.Replacing a defective blood system with a functional one who has non malignant genetic disorder like sickle cell anaemia and thallasemia. 3.Restoring the haematopoietic system in cancer patients after treatment.Powerpoint Templates

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Other fetal cells are Mesenchymal stem cells-differentiate to bone, fat and cartilage like the adult counterpart. Neural stem cell- they differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. They are the main source of cells for degenerative CNS injury for replacement. Eg: parkinsons diseasePowerpoint Templates Page 37

Potential application of fetal stem cells 1. 2. 3. In the field of fetal medicine: Non invasive prenatal diagnosis Intrauterine stem cell transplantation Gene therapy

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Cord blood stem cells Cord blood that is taken from the umbilical cord after the baby is born contains stem cells. Cord blood stem cells can grow a complete immune system of blood cells.

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Cord blood is rich in stem cells that are normal and free of malignancies. A typical cord blood collection has sufficient numbers of stem cells for engraftment in most recipients weighing up to 110 lb. Research for replicating stem cells, in vitro, is successfully being done to expand the volume.

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Umbilical cord blood stem cells It has both mesenchymal blood cell and haematopoietic stem cells. 1st successful umbilical cord b