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ROYAL BRONZE STATUARY FROM ANCIENT EGYPT

EGYPTOLOGICAL MEMOIRSManaging Editor Geerd Haayer

Edited by

Jacobus van Dijk, Betsy M. Bryan and Dieter Kurth

BRILL ST YXLEIDEN BOSTON 2004

EGYPTOLOGICAL MEMOIRS 3

ROYAL BRONZE STATUARY FROM ANCIENT EGYPTWith Special Attention to the Kneeling Pose

Marsha Hill

BRILL ST YXLEIDEN BOSTON 2004

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hill, Marsha. 1949 Royal bronze statuary from ancient Egypt : with special attention to the kneeling pose / Marsha Hill. p. cm. (Egyptological memoirs, ISSN 1387-2710 ; 3) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 90-04-12399-7 1. Bronze sculpture, Ancient-Egypt. 2. Small sculpture, Egyptian. 3. Kings and rulers in art. 4. Posture in art. I. Title. II. Series. NB142.8.E48H55 2003 732 .8dc22 2003055915

ISSN 13872710 ISBN 90 04 12399 7c Copyright 2004 by Styx/Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change.PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

CONTENTS

Acknowledgments List of plates The Study of Bronze Statuary Cupreous Statuary through the New Kingdom Third Intermediate Period The Kushite Period The Late and Ptolemaic Periods (with a brief note on the Roman Period) The Meaning and Role of Royal Bronze Statuary Conclusions Catalog of Royal Bronzes Appendix 1: The History of the Royal Kneeling Pose with Special Attention to Egyptian Stone Statuary Appendix 2: Provenance Index Appendix 3: Technical Examination of Cat. 242, by Deborah Schorsch Abbreviations Bibliography Photograph credits Plates

vii ix 1 7 23 51 75 121 143 149

241 257 259 261 263 283 285

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This book is a considerably revised version of my dissertation presented at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York. I am grateful to many individuals for their help. My rst thanks go to my original adviser the late Bernard V. Bothmer who felt strongly that important advances could be made toward dating anthropomorphic bronzes and, thus, constructing a history of bronze statuary by paying attention to groups that presented relatively accessible features. He identied a number of those groups, including royal bronzes, and through much of his long career collected data and photographs towards such an endeavor. These formed the nucleus of this study. Two other persons were of very material importance. David OConnor served as my adviser during the writing of the thesis and contributed a great deal to the articulation and clarication of the arguments laid out there. My colleague at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Deborah Schorsch of the Sherman Fairchild Center for Objects Conservation, has a long-standing interest in ancient metallurgy including particularly Egyptian bronzes, and has been an invaluable observer and interlocutor. I have been very fortunate to be a part of the Egyptian Art Department at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, having constant access to its collections and enjoying the benet of exchange with and support from my colleagues there, especially Dorothea Arnold, who also brought many important bronzes within my reach, James Allen and Catharine Roehrig. Bill Barrette worked hard to maximize and harmonize the scans of a disparate set of photographs. I hope I have adequately acknowledged my indebtedness to the work of many scholars in the text of the book, although I bear the responsibility for the observations and interpretations put forward here. In addition, many museum curators, Egyptologists,and other experts have provided access to objects and archives, called objects to my attention, and helpfully discussed issues: Willem M. van Haarlem, Allard Pierson Museum, Amsterdam; Nikolaos Kaltsas, Director, and former curator Eleni Tourna, National Archaeological Museum, Athens; Peter Lacovara, Michael C. Carlos Museum, Atlanta, and also previously at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston; Melinda Hartwig, Georgia State University, Atlanta; Terry Drayman-Weisser and Christianne Henry, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore; Cathleen Keller, University of Cal ifornia at Berkeley; Dietrich Wildung, Karla Kroeper, Frank Maron, Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin; Rita Freed and Larry Berman, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Richard Fazzini, to whom I am also very grateful for his encouragement and for bringing my manuscript to the attention of Jacobus van Dijk, Edna Russmann, and Madeleine Cody, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Brooklyn; Mamdouh Eldamaty, Adel Mahmoud, and May Trad, Egyptian Museum, Cairo; Lucilla Burn, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; Harry Smith and Sue Davies, Egypt Exploration Society North Saqqara Expedition, Cambridge; Stephen Harvey, Oriental Institute,vii

Chicago, and formerly when at the Walters Art Museum; Emily Teeter, Oriental Institute Museum, Chicago; Elizabeth Goring and Lesley Ann Liddiard, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh; Mogens Jrgensen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen; Bodil Bundgaard Rasmussen and Trine Wisemann of the Nationalmuseet, Copenhagen; Penny Wilson, University of Durham, when previously at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; Birgit Schlick Nolte for the Liebeighaus, Frankfurt am Main; Jean-Luc Chappaz, Mus e dArt et dHistoire, Geneva; George Ortiz, Geneva; Rosee marie Drenkhahn, Kestner Museum, Hannover; Karl-J. Seyfried, Agyptologisches Institut, Heidelberg; Eleni Vassilika and Bettina Schmitz, Roemer-Pelizaeus Museum, Hildesheim, and the former when previously at the Fitzwilliam; Daphna Ben Tor, Israel Museum, Jerusalem; Robert Cohon, Nelson-Atkins Museum, Kansas City; Maarten Raven, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden; Vivian Davies, Jeffrey Spencer and Nigel Strudwick, British Museum, London; Carol Andrews, London, when formerly at the British Museum; Nicholas Reeves, London; Giselle Pierini, Mus e dArch ologie m diterran enne, Marseille; Claire Derriks and Marie-Cecile e e e e Bruweir, Mus e de Mariemont, Morlanwelz, Belgium; Sylvia Schoske and Alfred e Grimm, Staatliche Sammlung Agyptischer Kunst, Munich; Donald Hansen, Institute of Fine Arts, New York Univeristy, New York; Ogden Goelet, New York University, New York; Richard Keresey, Sothebys, New York; Barbara Porter, New York; Laura Siegel, Robert Haber Ancient Art, New York; Paul Stanwick, New York; Helen Whitehouse, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; Diane Bergman, Grifth Librarian, Sackler Library, Oxford; Ir ne Aghion, Biblioth que Nationale de France, Paris; e e Christiane Ziegler and Elisabeth Delange, Mus e du Louvre, Paris; Jean Yoyotte, e Paris; David Silverman and Jennifer Wegner, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia; J. J. Fiechter, Pr verenges (Switzere land); Luis Fernando Dias Duarte and Tania Andrade Lima, Museo Nacional, Rio de Janeiro; Sidney Goldstein, Museum of Art, St. Louis; Andrey Bolshakov, Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Anna-Maria Donadoni-Roveri, the late Enrichetta Leospo, and Valeria Cortese, Museo Egizio, Turin; Helmut Satzinger, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna; Frida Tchacos, Galerie Nefer, Zurich. Collectors who generously gave access to their artworks have been cited according to their wishes in the catalog. Finally, I would like to thank Geerd Haayer and Jacobus van Dijk for their generous expertise and patience.

viii

List of plates

1 Cat. 128 [Geneva, Collection of George Ortiz] 2 Thutmose III. NK-1 (cat. 1) [New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1995.21, Purchase, Edith Perry Chapman Fund and Malcolm Hewitt Wiener Foundation Inc. Gift, 1995] 3 Thutmose IV. NK-2 (cat. 2) [London, British Museum EA 64564] 4 left, detail of gold staff of Tutankhamun [Cairo, Egyptian Museum 61665]; right, NK-3 (cat. 43) [Baltimore, The Walters Art Museum 54.406] 5 NK-4 (cat. 284) [Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology E14295] 6 Ramesses II. NK-5 (cat. 3) [Geneva, private collection] 7 High Priest Menkheperre. TIP-1 (cat. 8) [Rio de Janeiro, Museo Nacional 81] 8 Sphinx of Menkheperre. TIP-2 (cat. 7) [Paris, Mus e du Louvre E10897] e 9 TIP-4 (cat. 238) [New York, Jan Mitchell and Sons Collection] 10 Smendes. TIP-5 (cat. 206) [Morlanwelz, Belgium, Mus e royal de Mariemont e B242 (E52)] 11 Osorkon I. TIP-6 (cat. 10) [Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art 57.92, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund] 12 Osorkon II triad. TIP-A [Paris, Mus e du Louvre E6204] e 13 detail of Karomama. TIP-B [Paris, Mus e du Louvre N500] e 14 Silver king. TIP-C [Paris, Mus e du Louvre E27431] e 15 Usermaatre Sotepenimen. TIP-7 (cat. 11) [Paris, Collection of Charles Bouch ] e 16 Gold Amun. TIP-D [New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1412, Purchase, Edward S. Harkness Gift, 1926] 17 Usermaatre Sotepenimen. TIP-8 (cat. 44) [Baltimore, The Walters Art Museum 54.2093] 18 Pedubaste. TIP-9 (cat. 12) [Lisbon, Museu Calouste Gulbenkian 52] 19 Osorkon Meriamun. TIP-10 (cat. 237) [New York, private collection] 20 Pami. TIP-11 (cat. 13) [London, The British Museum EA 32747] 21 Sheshonq V. TIP-12 (cat. 14) [Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art 33.586, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund] 22 Takushit. TIP-F [Athens, National Archaeological Museum 110] 23 Peftjaubast. TIP-13 (cat. 15) [Boston, Museum of Fine Arts 1977.16] 24 TIP-14 (cat. 34) [Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum 88.37] 25 Pedise TIP-15 (cat. 16) [Cairo, Michailidis Collection] 26 TIP-17 (cat. 99) [Cairo, Egyptian Mus