States of matter Olomuodot. geseous solid liquid Transitions between states of matter melting...

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Transcript of States of matter Olomuodot. geseous solid liquid Transitions between states of matter melting...

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States of matter Olomuodot Slide 2 geseous solid liquid Transitions between states of matter melting solidification (crystallization) vaporization condensation sublimation desublimation The transitions of a substance from one state of matter to another are not connected with a change in the chemical composition. Slide 3 Plasma state of matter Plasma is partially or completely ionized gas. It consist of atoms, positively charged ions, atomic nuclei and electrons. Slide 4 The Sun and stars consist of plasma. In the upper part of the earths atmosphere (the ionosphere) ionization occours under the influence of the ultraviolet rays of the Sun. This is why when space station pass though this part of the atmosphere the radio connection with earth station is disrupted. Slide 5 S o l i d s Slide 6 In contrast to the liquid and gaseous state, the solid state of substances is characterized by : The greatest strength of the forces of attraction between the constituen tparticles (atoms, molecules and ions). The proximity between them is gretest. The particles of solids cannot move freely in space, but rather oscillate about fixet positions. Thus solids have a volume of their own which is changed very little by external conditions pressure (P) and temperature (T) in contradistinction to gases. Depending on the arrangement of their particles in space, solids are amorphous (amorfinen) or crystalline (kiteinen). Slide 7 Amorphous state (Amorfinen muoto) The amorphous state is a variety of the solid state, although in structure it is closer to the liquid state. In amorphous substances there is no long range order between particles, just short range order, such as is characteristic of liquid. The constituent particles are not regularly arranged and are therefore not connected by forces that are equal in magnitude. Overcoming these forces isnt effected by a definite external forse; hence the melting of amorphous substances occurs in a wide temperature interval. Upon heating they soften and melt gradually. Slide 8 Amorphous state (Amorfinen muoto) Amorphous substances have isotropic properties their properties are independent of direction. The amorphous state of substances is unstable. Though very slowly, amorphous substances pass into the crystalline state. Slide 9 Crystalline state Kiteinen muoto The crystalline state is the more stable state of solids. It is characterized by a regular arrangement of the constituent particles in space. Monocrystals have a regular geometric form with a definite number of sides, edges and vertices. The sizes of the sides may change, but the angles between them are constant. Slide 10 Slide 11