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C itrus fruits rank first in the world with the production
of 100 million tonnes among fruits (FAO, 2006).
Oranges constitute 65 per cent, mandarins 19 per cent,
lemons and limes 11 per cent and grapefruits 5 per cent of the
world citrus production (Ismail and Zhang, 2004).
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is the second
largest citrus fruit cultivated in India. Oranges occupy an area
of 2,14,800 ha with a production of 14,43,800 tonnes with a
productivity of 6.7 tonnes/ha (Anonymous, 2008). Post
harvest handling losses of citrus fruits are 5-10 per cent in the
most developed countries and 25-30 per cent in developing
countries. Sweet oranges are produced in Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
Sweet oranges are mainly consumed in fresh form and
their utilisation as processed products is very meagre.
However, during the peak harvest season, the availability of
the fruits exceeds the demand and the market price is very
low. Therefore, the value addition of sweet orange fruits
Members of the Research Forum
Associated Authors: 1Department of Horticulture,
University of Agricultural Sciences,
HIND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE
becomes necessary in order to minimise the glut in the
market.Utilisation of fruits for preparation of nectar or other
processed products would benefit the grower and also the
consumer. Sweet orange nectar is cheap and can be used
readily without dilution and also become viable alternative to
synthetic carbonated drinks (Deka et al., 2002). Keeping these
in view, investigations were conducted to standardise the
recipe for the preparation of sweet orange nectar and to study
changes in composition and quality during the storage.
The experiment on standardization of recipe for
preparation of nectar from sweet orange (citrus sinensis
Osbeck) var. sathgudi was carried out in the Processing
laboratory of the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian
Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru from November,
2008 to June, 2009. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial
Completely Randomized Design with five replications. The
experiment comprises of 3 treatments of different recipes viz.,
Standardization of recipe for preparation of nectar from
sweet orange (Citrus sinensis. Osbeck) var. SATHGUDI and
C.N. BYANNA1 AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA
Article history :
Received : 16.04.2012
Revised : 07.08.2012
Accepted : 08.09.2012
Author for correspondence :
I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA
Horticulture Polytechnic, Kalikiri,
CHITTOOR (A.P.) INDIA
ABSTRACT : The investigation on standardization of recipe for preparation of nectar from sweet
orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) var. sathgudi was conducted in the Processing laboratory of the division
of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru from November,
2008 to June, 2009. The experiment comprised of 3 treatments of recipe(Varying juice 20% to 24% with
fixed TSS of 15o Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity) in Factorial Completely Randomised Design with five
replications.The recipes were analysed for chemical composition and sensory quality attributes at 0, 3
and 6 months of storage in ambient conditions. During storage period, the TSS, acidity, reducing sugars,
non-enzymatic browning increased, while pH, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and
antioxidant activity decreased. In sensory evaluation, the nectar comprising of 24 per cent Juice, 15o Brix
and 0.3 per cent acidity retained significantly highest score for colour, consistency, flavour and over all
acceptability up to 6 months of storage.
KEY WORDS : Nectar, Sweet orange, Sensory analysis, Storage, Acidity, Antioxidant activity
HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE : Byanna, C.N. and Doreyappa Gowda, I.N. (2012). Standardization of recipe
for preparation of nectar from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis. Osbeck) var. SATHGUDI and its storage, Asian J.
Hort., 7(2) : 250-255.
THE ASIAN JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURE
Volume 7 | Issue 2 | December, 2012 | 250-255
Hind Agricultural Research and Training InstituteAsian J. Hort., 7(2) Dec., 2012 : 251
nectar with 20 per cent Juice, 15o Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity,
22 per cent Juice, 15o Brix, 0.3 per cent acidity and 24 per cent
Juice, 15o Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity. The recipes were
analysed for chemical composition and sensory qualities at 0,
3 and 6 months of storage at ambient conditions.Fresh sweet
orange fruits (Var. sathgudi) of optimum maturity and colour
were procured from the sweet orange gardens of Ananthapur
District, Andhra Pradesh. Fruits were washed in potable water
and 20 fruits were selected randomly and their physico-
chemical parameters were recorded. The fruits were peeled,
albedo portion was removed and the juice sacs were separated
from segments and blended in a mixer/blender. The juice
obtained was filtered using muslin cloth and analysed for
TSS and titratable acidity. The nectar with varying juice
content (22-24%) with a fixed TSS of 15oBrix and 0.3 per cent
acidity were prepared. Sugar syrup was prepared using
calculated quantity of cane sugar, water and citric acid. Strained
fruit juice and freshly prepared sugar syrup were mixed
together in the proportion as per the recipes on weight basis.
The mixture was heated on low flame until boiling. The
prepared hot nectar was filled into the pre-sterilised glass
bottles of 200 ml capacity, sealed using crown cap sealing
machine and then processed in boiling water for 20 minutes
and air cooled, labelled and stored at ambient condition.
Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation was carried out at
0, 3 and 6 months of storage. The sensory evaluation was
performed by a panel of 10 judges based on hedonic scale
having scores for colour (30), consistency (30) and flavour
Total soluble solids (TSS) were measured by hand
refractometer (Erma, 0-32o Brix), pH was determined using Elico
digital pH meter. Titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing
sugars and total sugars were estimated as per the procedure
suggested by Ranganna (1979, 1991). Non-reducing sugars
were obtained by deducting the value for reducing sugars
from total sugars. Antioxidant activity was estimated using
the methodology given by Leong and Shui (2002). The data
were analysed using Factorial Completely Randomised Design
(Sundar Raj et al., 1972).
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The results obtained from the present investigation are
summarized below :
Mean physical and Chemical parameters of 20 sweet orange
The weight of the fruits used for the study was 200 g,
horizontal and vertical diameter of fruit was 63.61mm and
66.06mm, respectively. Number of segments per fruit was 10.58
and average segment weight was 10.58 g. Peel thickness and
peel weight were 3.55mm and 32.08 g, respectively. The juice
recovery was 46.00 per cent (Table 1). Fruit juice had total
soluble solids of 10.10 Brix with 3.66 pH, 0.81 per cent titratable
acidity and 69.30 mg per 100 g of ascorbic acid (Table 2).
Chemical composition of sweet orange nectar and changes
Total soluble solids:
Significantly higher TSS was observed in nectar with 24
per cent juice compared to nectar with 20 per cent juice. Nectar
with 22 per cent juice had least TSS (Table 3). Significant
increase of TSS during storage in all recipes was noticed due
to hydrolysis of polysaccharides and pectin substances into
simpler sugars and also due to increase of titratable acidity.
Similar results have been reported by Jain et al. (2007).
Significantly highest TSS was found in nectar with 24 per
cent juice at 180th day of storage compared to other two recipes.
Significantly higher pH was found in nectar with 24 per
cent juice while least pH was observed in nectar with 22 per
cent juice. pH was decreased significantly during storage
(Table 3). Which may be due to the simultaneous increase in
titratable acidity (Doodnath and Badriel, 2000).
Marginally higher titratable acidity was found in nectar
with 24 per cent juice than nectar with 20 and 22 per cent juice.
Significant increase of titratable acidity in all recipes during
the storage was observed (Table 3). This might be due to
release of acids from juice which might have increased the
acidity. The results are in accordance with results reported
by Jain et al. (2007).
Higher reducing sugars were recorded in nectar with 24
Table 1: Physical parameters of sweet orange (Var. sathgudi) fruits
Sr. No. Parameters Observation
1. Weight (g) 200
2. Horizontal diameter (mm) 63.61
3. Vertical diameter (mm) 66.06
4. Number of segments