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  • C itrus fruits rank first in the world with the production

    of 100 million tonnes among fruits (FAO, 2006).

    Oranges constitute 65 per cent, mandarins 19 per cent,

    lemons and limes 11 per cent and grapefruits 5 per cent of the

    world citrus production (Ismail and Zhang, 2004).

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is the second

    largest citrus fruit cultivated in India. Oranges occupy an area

    of 2,14,800 ha with a production of 14,43,800 tonnes with a

    productivity of 6.7 tonnes/ha (Anonymous, 2008). Post

    harvest handling losses of citrus fruits are 5-10 per cent in the

    most developed countries and 25-30 per cent in developing

    countries. Sweet oranges are produced in Andhra Pradesh,

    Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan

    states.

    Sweet oranges are mainly consumed in fresh form and

    their utilisation as processed products is very meagre.

    However, during the peak harvest season, the availability of

    the fruits exceeds the demand and the market price is very

    low. Therefore, the value addition of sweet orange fruits

    Members of the Research Forum

    Associated Authors: 1Department of Horticulture,

    University of Agricultural Sciences,

    G.K.V.K., BENGALURU

    (KARNATAKA) INDIA

    HIND AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE

    becomes necessary in order to minimise the glut in the

    market.Utilisation of fruits for preparation of nectar or other

    processed products would benefit the grower and also the

    consumer. Sweet orange nectar is cheap and can be used

    readily without dilution and also become viable alternative to

    synthetic carbonated drinks (Deka et al., 2002). Keeping these

    in view, investigations were conducted to standardise the

    recipe for the preparation of sweet orange nectar and to study

    changes in composition and quality during the storage.

    RESEARCH METHODS

    The experiment on standardization of recipe for

    preparation of nectar from sweet orange (citrus sinensis

    Osbeck) var. sathgudi was carried out in the Processing

    laboratory of the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian

    Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru from November,

    2008 to June, 2009. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial

    Completely Randomized Design with five replications. The

    experiment comprises of 3 treatments of different recipes viz.,

    Standardization of recipe for preparation of nectar from

    sweet orange (Citrus sinensis. Osbeck) var. SATHGUDI and

    its storage

    C.N. BYANNA1 AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA

    Article history :

    Received : 16.04.2012

    Revised : 07.08.2012

    Accepted : 08.09.2012

    Author for correspondence :

    I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA

    Horticulture Polytechnic, Kalikiri,

    CHITTOOR (A.P.) INDIA

    ABSTRACT : The investigation on standardization of recipe for preparation of nectar from sweet

    orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) var. sathgudi was conducted in the Processing laboratory of the division

    of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru from November,

    2008 to June, 2009. The experiment comprised of 3 treatments of recipe(Varying juice 20% to 24% with

    fixed TSS of 15o Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity) in Factorial Completely Randomised Design with five

    replications.The recipes were analysed for chemical composition and sensory quality attributes at 0, 3

    and 6 months of storage in ambient conditions. During storage period, the TSS, acidity, reducing sugars,

    non-enzymatic browning increased, while pH, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and

    antioxidant activity decreased. In sensory evaluation, the nectar comprising of 24 per cent Juice, 15o Brix

    and 0.3 per cent acidity retained significantly highest score for colour, consistency, flavour and over all

    acceptability up to 6 months of storage.

    KEY WORDS : Nectar, Sweet orange, Sensory analysis, Storage, Acidity, Antioxidant activity

    HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE : Byanna, C.N. and Doreyappa Gowda, I.N. (2012). Standardization of recipe

    for preparation of nectar from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis. Osbeck) var. SATHGUDI and its storage, Asian J.

    Hort., 7(2) : 250-255.

    THE ASIAN JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURE

    Research Paper

    Volume 7 | Issue 2 | December, 2012 | 250-255

  • Hind Agricultural Research and Training InstituteAsian J. Hort., 7(2) Dec., 2012 : 251

    nectar with 20 per cent Juice, 15o Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity,

    22 per cent Juice, 15o Brix, 0.3 per cent acidity and 24 per cent

    Juice, 15o Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity. The recipes were

    analysed for chemical composition and sensory qualities at 0,

    3 and 6 months of storage at ambient conditions.Fresh sweet

    orange fruits (Var. sathgudi) of optimum maturity and colour

    were procured from the sweet orange gardens of Ananthapur

    District, Andhra Pradesh. Fruits were washed in potable water

    and 20 fruits were selected randomly and their physico-

    chemical parameters were recorded. The fruits were peeled,

    albedo portion was removed and the juice sacs were separated

    from segments and blended in a mixer/blender. The juice

    obtained was filtered using muslin cloth and analysed for

    TSS and titratable acidity. The nectar with varying juice

    content (22-24%) with a fixed TSS of 15oBrix and 0.3 per cent

    acidity were prepared. Sugar syrup was prepared using

    calculated quantity of cane sugar, water and citric acid. Strained

    fruit juice and freshly prepared sugar syrup were mixed

    together in the proportion as per the recipes on weight basis.

    The mixture was heated on low flame until boiling. The

    prepared hot nectar was filled into the pre-sterilised glass

    bottles of 200 ml capacity, sealed using crown cap sealing

    machine and then processed in boiling water for 20 minutes

    and air cooled, labelled and stored at ambient condition.

    Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation was carried out at

    0, 3 and 6 months of storage. The sensory evaluation was

    performed by a panel of 10 judges based on hedonic scale

    having scores for colour (30), consistency (30) and flavour

    (40).

    Total soluble solids (TSS) were measured by hand

    refractometer (Erma, 0-32o Brix), pH was determined using Elico

    digital pH meter. Titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing

    sugars and total sugars were estimated as per the procedure

    suggested by Ranganna (1979, 1991). Non-reducing sugars

    were obtained by deducting the value for reducing sugars

    from total sugars. Antioxidant activity was estimated using

    the methodology given by Leong and Shui (2002). The data

    were analysed using Factorial Completely Randomised Design

    (Sundar Raj et al., 1972).

    RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

    The results obtained from the present investigation are

    summarized below :

    Mean physical and Chemical parameters of 20 sweet orange

    fruits

    The weight of the fruits used for the study was 200 g,

    horizontal and vertical diameter of fruit was 63.61mm and

    66.06mm, respectively. Number of segments per fruit was 10.58

    and average segment weight was 10.58 g. Peel thickness and

    peel weight were 3.55mm and 32.08 g, respectively. The juice

    recovery was 46.00 per cent (Table 1). Fruit juice had total

    soluble solids of 10.10 Brix with 3.66 pH, 0.81 per cent titratable

    acidity and 69.30 mg per 100 g of ascorbic acid (Table 2).

    Chemical composition of sweet orange nectar and changes

    during storage:

    Total soluble solids:

    Significantly higher TSS was observed in nectar with 24

    per cent juice compared to nectar with 20 per cent juice. Nectar

    with 22 per cent juice had least TSS (Table 3). Significant

    increase of TSS during storage in all recipes was noticed due

    to hydrolysis of polysaccharides and pectin substances into

    simpler sugars and also due to increase of titratable acidity.

    Similar results have been reported by Jain et al. (2007).

    Significantly highest TSS was found in nectar with 24 per

    cent juice at 180th day of storage compared to other two recipes.

    pH:

    Significantly higher pH was found in nectar with 24 per

    cent juice while least pH was observed in nectar with 22 per

    cent juice. pH was decreased significantly during storage

    (Table 3). Which may be due to the simultaneous increase in

    titratable acidity (Doodnath and Badriel, 2000).

    Titratable acidity:

    Marginally higher titratable acidity was found in nectar

    with 24 per cent juice than nectar with 20 and 22 per cent juice.

    Significant increase of titratable acidity in all recipes during

    the storage was observed (Table 3). This might be due to

    release of acids from juice which might have increased the

    acidity. The results are in accordance with results reported

    by Jain et al. (2007).

    Reducing sugars:

    Higher reducing sugars were recorded in nectar with 24

    Table 1: Physical parameters of sweet orange (Var. sathgudi) fruits

    Sr. No. Parameters Observation

    1. Weight (g) 200

    2. Horizontal diameter (mm) 63.61

    3. Vertical diameter (mm) 66.06

    4. Number of segments