Standard 7.7

Click here to load reader

download Standard 7.7

of 120

  • date post

    04-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    41
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

description

Standard 7.7. COMPARE and CONTRAST the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Mesoamerica and Andean civilizations. FOCUS QUESTION. Why are the Olmec important in the history of the Americas?. Mesoamerican & Andean Civilizations. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Standard 7.7

  • Standard 7.7COMPARE and CONTRAST the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Mesoamerica and Andean civilizations.

  • FOCUS QUESTIONWhy are the Olmec important in the history of the Americas?

  • Mesoamerican & Andean Civilizations

  • Please open your text book to page 385.

  • MesoamericaWhat is now southern Mexico and parts of Central America

    Rain forests cover the region Fertile soil made this a good area for farmingPeople first appeared in this area around 12,000 BC

  • EskimoNative AmericanMexicoAztecInca

  • The Olmec

  • The OlmecThe first urban civilation formed in Mesoamerica around 1200 BC.Built the first pyramids in the AmericasDeveloped the first writing system in the AmericasTraded with others from far awayCivilization ended around 400 BC

  • The Olmec Veracruz Yucatan Peninsula La Venta San Lorenzo Tres Zapotes TuxtlaMountains

  • This civilization developed around 1200 B.C. The Olmec lived in the swampy jungles of Central Mexico. The Olmec adapted by using slash and burn farming techniques. The land was fertile and ideal for growing crops. The Olmec develop a system of social classes.To please their gods the Olmec sacrificed animals and people. The Olmec traded and fought other tribes for control of natural resources.Believed to be the first civilization of Mexico.The Olmec

  • FOCUS QUESTIONWhy are the Olmec important in the history of the Americas?

    The Olmec influenced later groups throughout Mesoamerica, who then built on Olmec achievements.

    Give an example of how early scientists influenced others in the Scientific Revolution.

  • Now for a preview of whats coming up next

  • Do you remember whatwas considered good lookinduring the Middle Ages?

    Hint Paris would have beenconsidered poor and ugly.

  • We will be studying a culturein which this would be considereda BEAUTIFUL smile.

  • In this culture, this flat,elongated head is a visionof beauty and wealththe Paris Hilton of the day.

  • We will learn about how they worship and how they get power.

  • Focus QuestionHow did the Maya adapt to and change their environment?

  • Please open your text book to page 390.

  • The MayaDeveloped in Mesoamerica around 1000 BCLived in an area of thick forests and in the highlands making farming hardClassic Age from AD 250 to 900Spread throughout the Yucatan Peninsula

  • ReligionWorshipped many gods that controlled sun, rain and crops.Believed that their kings were related to and spoke to the gods.They had to please the gods by offering human blood Believed the soul was in the bloodOn special occasions, sacrificing people and animals pleased the gods.

  • Mayan CitiesBuilt large pyramids, temples, and palacesCanals built to control the flow of water through citiesLarge plazas built for public eventsHillsides turned into flat terraces so crops could be grown close to cities

  • Maya Society

    Kings held the highest position. Upper class included priests, warriors, and merchants.Lower-class included most of the Maya - farmersSlaves, the lowest, included orphans, slaves children, and people who owed money

  • Maya Achievements

    Sculpture and jade and gold jewelry Mayan cities largest architectural achievement Did not have metal toolsBuilt observatories to study the starsDeveloped the calendar and number systemAlso developed a writing system similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics

  • Mayan WarfareMayan cities usually battled each other to gain power.Warfare may have led to the destruction of the Mayan civilization.

  • Causes of the Decline of the Mayan CivilizationBegan to collapse around 900The cause of the collapse is unknownWarfare may have contributedKings made demands of people and they may have rebelledA long period of dry weather may have made it hard to grow cropsA mix of events probably led to the decline

  • WHEN: 250-900 AD 6 CENTURIESWHERE: Yucatan Peninsula,Central America, Southern MexicoCLIMATE: Rainforest, highlands/mountains, lowlands by the oceanRELIGIOUS BELIEFS:Many Gods Sun, rain and cropsKing spoke to GodsBlood letting to please the GodsSoul was in the bloodSacrificed people and animalsLed by Priest-KingsSTRUCTURE OF SOCIETY:King led peopleUpper Class Priests, warriors, merchants (nobility)Lower Class Most Mayans were farmersBottom - SlavesACHIEVEMENTS: MagnificentArchitecture; built observatories; made accurate predictions;developed a calendar and numbersystem; hieroglyph writing system FALL OF THE EMPIRE:Wars, over population, droughtlack of food, people lost faith

  • Focus QuestionHow did the Maya adapt to and change their environment?

    They cleared wooded areas for farmland; used available resources for building materials; traded to obtain resources not available locally.

  • KINGSHighest PositionRelated to GodsSpoke to Gods

  • UPPER CLASSControlled politics (government), religion, and the economy ($).

  • PRIESTSBorn into positionLed ceremoniesKnowledge of astronomy and math

  • WARRIORSFought other Mayan citiesWore animal skins and headdressesPainted bodies

  • MERCHANTSDirected tradeDistributed goods

  • LOWER CLASSMost people were lower class farmers.Lived in small houses outside of cities.

  • FARMERSHad to give crops to rulersHad to work on building structuresHad to serve in the army

  • SLAVESHeld lowest positionOrphans, slaves children, people who owed moneyHad to carry heavy trade goods from city to cityServed upper class

  • UPPER/LOWERLower supported upper with food and laborUpper supported lower by leading religious ceremonies

  • ReligionWorshipped many gods that controlled sun, rain and crops.They had to please the gods by offering human blood Believed the soul was in the bloodOn special occasions, sacrificing people and animals pleased the gods.

  • Maya Achievements

    Sculpture and jade and gold jewelry Mayan cities largest architectural achievement Did not have metal toolsBuilt observatories to study the starsDeveloped the calendar and number systemAlso developed a writing system similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics

  • FOCUS QUESTIONHow did the Aztecs adapt to their environment?

  • The Aztec EmpireExisted from about 1300 to 1520 AD 2 centuriesRuled a large empire in the Valley of Mexico at Lake TexcocoMild with good soil island was swampyControlled a huge trade networkFierce warriors - mercenaries

  • THE AZTECS BUILD AN EMPIREThe first Aztecs were farmers from northern Mexico. Around the 1100s, theymigrated south.

  • When they arrived in central Mexico,they found that other tribes had taken allthe good farmland. All that was left was aswampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco.

  • What would you do to try to grow crops on swampy land?

  • The Aztec built causeways raised roads across water to connect their island with the mainland.

  • Floating gardens

  • To survive, the Aztecs hired themselvesout as skilled fighters.

  • *Many Aztec gods*Represented a world full of spirits*Gods required prayer, rituals, and sacrifices for good harvests*Sacrificed prisoners*Believed kings dreams foretold the future

  • Aztec SocietyPeople divided into social classesKings were worshippedNobles were leaders Priests and warriors below kingsMerchants and artisans nextCommoners farmed landSerfs worked the land but didnt own itSlaves captives of war

  • Just like people rebelling against taxation today, people did not like it back then.

  • Their taxes were called tribute.

  • Aztec Achievements Built chinampas (floating gardens)Studied astronomy and created a calendarBuilt bridges and canalsHad a complex writing system

  • Cortez and the AztecsSpanish explorer Hernan Cortez arrived in Mexico in 1519Aztec emperor Moctezuma II thought Cortez was a godCortez took the emperor prisonerThe Aztecs became angry and drove the Spanish outCortez came back in 1521 and conquered the Aztecs

  • Civil wars were taking place. People who had been conquered by the Aztec were unhappy and bitter. Some actually helped Cortez.

    Please turn to page 414 in your text.

  • Cortez had horses, armor, and superior weapons.

  • Disease just as with Native Americans, diseases like and small pox killed many Aztecs.

  • WHEN: 250-900 AD 6 CENTURIESWHERE: Yucatan Peninsula,Central America, Southern MexicoCLIMATE: Rainforest, highlands/mountains, lowlands by the oceanRELIGIOUS BELIEFS:Many Gods Sun, rain and cropsKing spoke to GodsBlood letting to please the GodsSoul was in the bloodSacrificed people and animalsLed by Priest-KingsSTRUCTURE OF SOCIETY:King led peopleUpper Class Priests, warriors, merchants (nobility)Lower Class Most Mayans were farmersBottom - SlavesACHIEVEMENTS: Magnificentarchitecture; built observatories; made accurate predictions; developed a calendar and numberSystem; hieroglyph writing systemFALL OF THE EMPIRE:Wars, over population, droughtlack of food, people lost faithWHEN: 1300-1520 AD 2 CENTURIESWHERE: Valley of MexicoLake TexcocoCLIMATE: Mild, with good soil -Island was swampyRELIGIOUS BELIEFS: Many Aztec GodsRepresented a world full of spirits.Gods required prayer, rituals, andsacrifices for good harvests.Sacrificed prisoners.STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY: LivedIn settlements called calpullis.King was worshipped.Nobles were leaders.Commoners farmed l