Staff Analysis of Toilets, Urinals, and ANALYSIS OF TOILETS, URINALS, AND FAUCETS ... that were...

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Transcript of Staff Analysis of Toilets, Urinals, and ANALYSIS OF TOILETS, URINALS, AND FAUCETS ... that were...

  • CaliforniaEnergyCommission

    DRAFTSTAFFREPORT

    STAFFANALYSISOFTOILETS,URINALS,ANDFAUCETS

    CaliforniaEnergyCommission

    2014ApplianceEfficiencyPreRulemaking

    DocketNumber14AAER1

    APRIL 2014

    CEC 400 2014 007 SD

    CALIFORNIAENERGYCOMMISSION

    EdmundG.BrownJr.,Governor

  • CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSIONHarinder Singh Ken Rider Tuan Ngo Josh Butzbaugh Kristen Driskell Jared Babula Primary AuthorsHarinder Singh Project ManagerConsuelo Martinez Office Manager APPLIANCES AND EXISTING BUILDINGS OFFICEDave Ashuckian Deputy Director EFFICIENCY DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director

    DISCLAIMER

    Staff members of the California Energy Commission prepared this report. As such, it does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees, or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors and subcontractors make no warrant, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the Energy Commission nor has the Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this report.

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    PREFACE

    OnMarch14,2012,theCaliforniaEnergyCommissionissuedanOrderInstitutingRulemaking(OIR)tobeginconsideringstandards,testprocedures,labelingrequirements,andotherefficiencymeasurestoamendtheApplianceEfficiencyRegulations(CaliforniaCodeofRegulations,Title20,Sections1601throughSection1608).InthisOIR,theEnergyCommissionidentifiedavarietyofapplianceswiththepotentialtosaveenergyand/orwater.Thegoalofthisprerulemakingistodeveloptheproposedapplianceefficiencystandardsandmeasurestorealizetheseenergysavingsopportunities.OnMarch25,2013,theEnergyCommissionreleasedanInvitationtoParticipatetoprovideinterestedpartieswiththeopportunitytoinformtheEnergyCommissionabouttheproduct,market,andindustrycharacteristicsoftheappliancesidentifiedintheOIR.TheEnergyCommissionreviewedtheinformationanddatareceivedinthedocketandhostedstaffworkshopsonMay28through31,2013,tovetthisinformationpublicly.OnJune13,2013,theEnergyCommissionreleasedanInvitationtoSubmitProposalstoseekproposalsforstandards,testprocedures,labelingrequirements,andothermeasurestoimprovetheefficiencyandreducetheenergyorwaterconsumptionoftheappliancesidentifiedintheOIR.TheEnergyCommissionreviewedallinformationreceivedtodeterminewhichapplianceswerestrongcandidatesforthedevelopmentofefficiencystandardsandmeasures.Basedonitsassessment,theEnergyCommissionwillproceedwithappliancesinphasesfortheremainderoftherulemaking.Thefirstphaseofrulemakingcommenceswiththedevelopmentofstaffreportsandproposedregulationsforfaucets,toilets,urinals,fluorescentdimmingballasts,airfilters,andheatpumpwaterchillers.

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    ABSTRACT

    Thisstaffreportdiscussesproposedupdatestothetoilet,urinal,andfaucetstandardsintheApplianceEfficiencyRegulations(CaliforniaCodeofRegulations,Title20,Sections1601to1608).Theseproposedupdatesarepartofthe2012ApplianceEfficiencyRulemaking,PhaseI(Docket#12AAER2C).

    ThisreportpresentstheCaliforniaEnergyCommissionstaffsanalysisofthecosteffectivenessandtechnicalfeasibilityofproposedstandardsfortoilets,urinals,andfaucets.Thestatewidewaterandenergy(electricityandnaturalgas)useandsavings,andotherrelatedenvironmentalimpactsandbenefits,arealsoincludedinthisanalysis.

    ThroughtheenactmentofAssemblyBill715(Laird,Chapter499,Statutesof2007),Californiahasalreadyadoptedwaterefficiencystandardsfortoiletsandurinalsthatexceedthefederalefficiencyrequirements.However,thesestatutorystandardshavenotbeenincorporatedintoTitle20,whichdictatestheallowablewaterconsumptionvaluesforproductsforsaleorofferedforsaleinCaliforniaandprovidesameansforenforcementofthosestandards.TheproposedupdatestoTitle20wouldsettheefficiencylevelfortoiletsat1.28gallonsperflush(gpf)and0.5gpfforurinals.Inadditiontomodifyingthemaximumflushvolumes,theproposedstandardwouldestablishminimumperformancestandards(wasteextractionstandards)fortoiletsandwouldestablishnewwaterconservationstandardsforreplacementvalvesforplumbingfixturesthatweredesignedforfixturesinbuildingsbuiltinorbefore1994.

    CaliforniahasalsoadoptedwaterefficiencystandardsfortheinstallationofinteriorfaucetsthroughSenateBill407(Padilla,Chapter587,Statutesof2009).TheproposedupdatestoTitle20wouldgobeyondSB407tosetmaximumwaterconsumptionlevelsof1.5gallonsperminute(gpm)forlavatoryfaucets,1.8gpmforkitchenfaucets,and0.5gpmforpubliclavatoryfaucets.

    Theproposedupdatetothestandardsfortoilets,urinals,andfaucetswouldsaveabout8.2billiongallonsofwater,24.6milliontherms(Mtherm)ofnaturalgas,and169gigawatthours(GWh)peryearthefirstyearthestandardisineffect.

    Bytheyearthatthetoiletstockturnsover(2039),theproposedstandardswouldhaveacombinedannualsavingsofabout86.6billiongallonsofwater,223Mthermofnaturalgas,and1,660GWh.Thisequatestoroughly$1.12billioninsavingstoCaliforniabusinessesandindividuals.

    Inaddition,theproposedstandardswouldreducegreenhousegasemissionsby1.9milliontonsofcarbondioxideequivalents(CO2e)annually.

    TheEnergyCommissionstaffanalyzedavailablemarketdataandconcludedthattheupdatestostandardsfortoilets,urinals,andfaucetswouldsignificantlyreduceenergyandwaterconsumptionandaretechnicallyfeasibleandcosteffective.

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    Keywords:ApplianceEfficiencyRegulations,applianceregulations,waterefficiency,energyefficiency,toilets,waterclosets,urinals,faucets

    Pleasecitethisreportasfollows:

    Singh,Harinder,KenRider,TuanNgo,JoshButzbaugh,andKristenDriskell.2014.StaffAnalysisofToilets,Urinals,andFaucets.CaliforniaEnergyCommission.PublicationNumber:CEC4002014007SD.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LegislativeCriteria.......................................................................................................................1

    WaterAScarceResource.........................................................................................................1

    ProductDescription.....................................................................................................................2

    Toilets...................................................................................................................................................................2

    Urinals.................................................................................................................................................................4

    ReplacementValves(Flushometer)......................................................................................................................5

    Faucets.................................................................................................................................................................6

    EfficiencyPolicy...........................................................................................................................6

    ReducingElectricalEnergyConsumptiontoCombatClimateChange..............................7

    LoadingOrderforMeetingtheStatesEnergyNeeds...........................................................7

    ZeroNetEnergyGoals...............................................................................................................8

    GovernorsCleanEnergyJobsPlan..........................................................................................9

    AddressingDroughtConditions...............................................................................................9

    RegulatoryApproaches...............................................................................................................9

    HistoricalApproach....................................................................................................................9

    FederalRegulations...................................................................................................................10

    CaliforniaRegulations...............................................................................................................10

    LocalRegulations.......................................................................................................................11

    RegulationsinOtherStates......................................................................................................12

    WaterSense...............................................................................................................................12

    TheCASEReport.......................................................................................................................13

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    IndustryProposals.....................................................................................................................14

    AlternativesConsideration.......................................................................................................14

    MaintainingCurrentTitle20...........................................................................................................................15

    AdoptingCASEReportProposal......................................................................................................................15

    AdoptingIndustryProposals.............................................................................................................................16

    ProposalforToilets,Urinals,andFaucetsRegulations......................................................16

    SavingsandCostAnalysis.......................................................................................................17

    Toilets,Urinals,andFaucetsRegulations:TechnicalFeasibility.....................................20