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  • International conference on Stabilisation/Solidification Treatment and Remediation, Cambridge 12-13 April 2005

    Stabilisation/solidification of synthetic drill cuttings Stabilisation/solidification of synthetic drill cuttings representing Ras Shukier oil field in Egyptrepresenting Ras Shukier oil field in Egypt

    UNIVERSITY OFCAMBRIDGE

    M. S. AlM. S. Al--AnsaryAnsary & A& A.. AlAl--TabbaaTabbaa

  • OutlineOutline

    I.I. Oil Drill CuttingsOil Drill CuttingsII.II. Ras Shukier Case StudyRas Shukier Case StudyIII.III. Experimental WorkExperimental WorkIV.IV. Ongoing programmeOngoing programmeV.V. ConclusionConclusion

  • ClaCla

    Drill cuttings are heterogeneous wastes Drill cuttings are heterogeneous wastes that are generated from petroleum drilling industrythat are generated from petroleum drilling industry

  • Drill fluid Circulation SystemDrill fluid Circulation System

    Recyc

    led

    Recyc

    led flu

    idflu

    id

    Drill Cuttings + Drill Cuttings + flui

    dfluidDrill Cuttings Drill Cuttings

    contaminated with contaminated with chemicals from chemicals from

    fluidfluid & oil& oil

  • Treatment methods for drill cuttingsTreatment methods for drill cuttings

    Leave in placeLeave in place-- disturbeddisturbedLeave in placeLeave in place-- undisturbedundisturbedEntombmentEntombmentCappingCappingGravel DumpingGravel DumpingBioremediation in situBioremediation in situBioBio--reactorreactorLand FarmingLand FarmingMechanical DredgingMechanical Dredging

    Crawler retrievalCrawler retrievalReRe--injectioninjectionReRe--spreadingspreadingMechanical separationMechanical separationDistillationDistillationStabilisationStabilisationCombustionCombustionSupercritical extractionSupercritical extractionThermal Thermal DesorptionDesorption

  • II.II. Ras Shukier Drill CuttingsRas Shukier Drill Cuttings

    Ras Shukier is an offshore oil production site located in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt. This site generates approximately 2,740 tonnes of cuttings per year. Ras Shukier consists of nine complex platforms.

  • TransportationService boat

    Approved disposal byEnvironment

    Offshore Onshore

    Waste Disposal Area

    Drill Cuttings

    Manifest by Load Master

    Manifest by ToolpusherCutting

    Box

    Drilling Rig

  • Physical and Chemical Characteristics Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Brownish black, sticky with a clayey texture soil.

    Distinctive crude odour.

    Density ranges between 1.2 and 2.0 g/cm3.

    (w/w)(w/w) Hydrocarbon%Hydrocarbon% Cr%Cr% Zn%Zn% BaBa%% PbPb%% ClCl%%

    0.1 2.1

    9.20.3

    0.2

    1.2

    0.2

    0.6

    0.1

    0.4

    11.0

    11.8

    AverageAverage

    MaxMax

  • III.III. Experimental WorkExperimental Work

    Synthetic drill cuttings and their propertiesSynthetic drill cuttings and their properties

    Soil composition %

    Sand content 10Silt (rock flour) content 50Clay 1 (kaolin) 20

    Clay 2 (bentonite) 20Property ValueWater content 20%pH 9Plastic Limit 25%

    Liquid Limit 51%

    Cutting composition %

    Sodium Chloride 3.5

    Paraffin oil (of dry soil) 11

  • Binder SystemBinder System

    A. Conventional BindersA. Conventional Binders

    Portland Cement (PC)Portland Cement (PC)

    LimeLime

    Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA)Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA)

    BlastfurnaceBlastfurnace Slag (BFSSlag (BFS))

    B. Novel BindersB. Novel Binders

    MgOMgO cementcement

    ZeoliteZeolite

    MicrosilicaMicrosilica (silica fume)(silica fume)

    Cement Kiln Dust (CKDCement Kiln Dust (CKD

    CompostCompost

  • Sample PreparationSample Preparation

    Water : Dry binder: Water : Dry binder: 0.6 : 10.6 : 1

    Dry binder content by weight :Dry binder content by weight : 10%, 20% and 30%10%, 20% and 30%

    Binders: Binders: either PC only either PC only or or 1:1 PC:other binder1:1 PC:other binder

    Sample size :Sample size : 50 x 100 mm50 x 100 mm

  • Testing ProgramTesting Program

    Tests at 28 days of curingTests at 28 days of curing

    1.1. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS)Unconfined compressive strength (UCS)

    2.2. LeachabilityLeachability (Chloride and Oil)(Chloride and Oil)

    3.3. LeachateLeachate pHpH

    4.4. Microstructure analysisMicrostructure analysis

  • 1.1. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)

    Mic

    rosi

    lica-

    PCPC

    BFS

    -PC

    Zeo

    lite-

    PC

    PFA

    -PC

    MgO

    -Cem

    ent 2

    CK

    D-P

    C

    Lim

    e-PC

    Com

    post

    -PC

    MgO

    -Cem

    ent 1

    3 0 %2 0 %

    1 0 %

    0

    5 0 01 0 0 0

    1 5 0 0

    2 0 0 0

    2 5 0 0

    3 0 0 0

    3 5 0 04 0 0 0

    4 5 0 0

    UC

    S (k

    Pa)

  • 2.2. Chloride Chloride LeachabilityLeachability

    10% 20% 30%

    950

    1250

    1550

    1850

    PC

    PFA

    -PC

    CK

    D-P

    C

    Com

    post

    -PC

    MgO

    cem

    ent1

    MgO

    cem

    ent2

    Mic

    rosi

    lica-

    PC

    BFS

    -PC

    Zeo

    lite-

    PC

    Lim

    e-PC

    Chl

    orid

    e le

    acha

    teco

    nc. (

    mg/

    L)

  • 2.2. Oil Oil LeachabilityLeachability

    10% 20% 30%

    10

    100

    1000

    10000

    PC PFA

    -PC

    CK

    D-P

    C

    Com

    post

    -PC

    MgO

    cem

    ent1

    MgO

    cem

    ent2

    Mic

    rosi

    lica-

    PC

    BFS

    -PC

    Zeo

    lite-

    PC

    Lim

    e-PC

    Para

    ffin

    oil

    leac

    hate

    conc

    . (m

    g/L

    )

  • 3.3. LeachateLeachate pHpH

    Binder contentBinder System

    10% 20% 30%PC 12.0 12.4 12.6BFS - PC 12.0 12.2 12.4Microsilica - PC 10.5 10.4 10.6

    Compost - PC 11.6 12.1 12.2PFA - PC 12.0 12.1 12.1

    MgO cement2 10.9 12.0 12.0

    12.1

    9.9

    11.6

    Lime - PC

    12.0

    12.4

    MgO cement1

    12.5

    11.0

    11.9

    11.0

    12.3Zeolite - PC 11.7CKD- PC 12.4

  • 4.4. Microstructural AnalysisMicrostructural AnalysisSEM at 28 days

    Microsilica - PC

    MgO cement 2

    Lime - PC

    Zeolite - PC Compost - PC

    PC

  • IV. IV. Ongoing ProgrammeOngoing Programme

    North Sea Case StudyNorth Sea Case StudyBest S/S systems selected for more detailed studyBest S/S systems selected for more detailed studyNext mixes to include heavy metalsNext mixes to include heavy metalsFor chloride, possibility of a low pH cementFor chloride, possibility of a low pH cementPelletisation of thermally treated drill cuttingsPelletisation of thermally treated drill cuttings

  • V. V. ConclusionConclusion

    Drill cutting is a big problem that the petroleum industry is keen to find solutions

    The utilisation of S/S techniques to treat drill cuttings by using conventional as well as novel binders indicated the following:

    -- UCS of the drill cuttingsUCS of the drill cuttings--binder mixes at 28 days binder mixes at 28 days covered a wide range of feasible applications. covered a wide range of feasible applications.

  • V.V. Conclusion (contd.)Conclusion (contd.)

    -- Chloride leachate concentrations showed a change from Chloride leachate concentrations showed a change from hazardous to nonhazardous to non--reactive hazardous waste. reactive hazardous waste.

    -- Oil leaching concentrations decreased as the dry binder Oil leaching concentrations decreased as the dry binder content increased. content increased.

    -- The The leachateleachate pH values indicated the use of lower pH binders.pH values indicated the use of lower pH binders.

    -- The The microstructural analysis suggested an advanced level of microstructural analysis suggested an advanced level of hydration. hydration.

    Future work will give more detailed information on the relative performance of different binders.

  • Thank YouThank YouMarwaMarwa at Ras Shukier oil field May 2003at Ras Shukier oil field May 2003