Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink ... Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated...

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  • IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

    05/15/2013

    1

    Spotted Wing Drosophila / Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

    Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture Specialist

    Grant Bolton Doctoral student

    Spotted Wing Drosophila (a vinegar fruit fly)

    Significance

     Unlike other fruit flies, SWD attacks sound ripening fruit, also attacks some vegetables

     Once eggs laid in fruit, no longer able to control with pesticides

     Short lifecycle and overlapping generations make spray timing difficult

     Requires sprays near harvest time

     Requires multiple sprays which can lead to pesticide resistance

    How to identify SWD

    Serrated egg- laying structure

    (ovipositor)

    MALEFEMALEFlies with no dots on wings could be:

     SWD females Native Drosophila

    species

    Need to detect presence of ovipositor

    Ovipositing female SWD. Source: E. Beers, Washington State Univ.

    1 female = 300 eggs 150 females = 45,000 eggs 22,500 females = almost 7 million eggs

    The “1-2-3” IPM Approach for SWD

    This and other SWD articles available at: http://ipm.missouri.edu/ipcm/ and http://www.LU-IPM.net

    http://ipm.missouri.edu/ipcm/ http://www.lu-ipm.net/

  • IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

    05/15/2013

    2

    (1) Monitoring

    How to make a trap to monitor for SWD

    14 gauge solid core wire

    Melt 3/16” diameter holes in side of cup using a soldering iron

    DON’T USE STICKY CARD!

    1 quart deli-type container

    Yeast bait recipe: ½ tablespoon active

    dry yeast, 2 tablespoons sugar, 6

    oz. water

    Yeast / sugar bait: effective at trapping SWD

    Traps indicate presence of SWD; but they do not indicate level of infestation (egg-laying in fruit)

    Number of flies captures are not predicting potential for infestation

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    SWD females

    SWD males

    Seasonal SWD captures in 2014 St. Peters, MO

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    Seasonal SWD captures in 2014 Columbia, MO

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    Seasonal SWD captures in 2014 Marshall, MO

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    Columbia

    St. Peters

    Marshall

    Carver

    SW D

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    Seasonal SWD captures in 2014 Four locations (Carver = LU farm in JC) Monitoring Spotted

    Wing Drosophila with Traps and Plant Volatiles

    Grant Bolton Doctoral student

    Advisors: Bruce Barrett and Jaime Piñero University of Missouri - Columbia

  • IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

    05/15/2013

    3

     How many are using traps to monitor for SWD?

     How many use a commercial lure?

     How many use a homemade lure?

    WHY?

    Characteristics of a good trap

     Easy to use

     Cheap/affordable

     Catches flies at least one week before infestation

     Only catches SWD

     Red and

    black are

    better

    attractive

    trap colors

     An

    alternative

    ‘Zorro’ trap

    is red with

    black stripe

    Common bait is Apple Cider Vinegar or Yeast and Sugar mixture

    A good commercial alternative for SWD monitoring is the SWD Pherocon lure (available at Great Lakes IPM)

    Other commercial lures are available (e.g., Scentry, AlphaScents)

  • IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

    05/15/2013

    4

    Fruit Based Lure

     Developing an attractive lure based on fruit and leaf odors

     Key component is a leaf odor from strawberries

     Not only is it attractive to SWD, but it smells better than the commercial lure!

    Tested 12

    chemicals

    individually

    and then in

    combination

    β-cyclocitral (BC) Methyl Isovalerate (MI) Methyl Butyrate (MB) Butyl Acetate (BA) Isopentyl Acetate (IA) Ethyl Hexanoate (EH) Methyl Hexanoate (MH) Ethyl Acetate (EA) Hexyl Acetate (HA) Methyl Butyrate (MB) 2-Heptanone (2HN) 2-phenylethanol (2PE)

    We were getting higher selectivity with fruit

    based traps

    Field trials coming soon!

     Testing all 8 compounds along with commercial lure comparison

     Alan T Busby Organic Farm– Jeff City, MO

    Update on trapping…  Attracticidal

    Spheres

     Use attractive red sphere with insecticide coating

     Coupled with spraying could be effective IPM tool

     Removing over-ripe fruit from production areas can minimize SWD egg laying and larval development

    Growers in other regions of the country send pickers through fields with one container to collect good fruit and another container to collect over-ripe fruit

    Sanitation

    http://ucanr.ed u

    (2) Cultural practices

  • IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

    05/15/2013

    5

     For brambles, thin the plant row to 3-4 strong canes per square foot. This eliminates weaker shoots and opens the canopy

     Consider a trellising system that similarly opens the canopy

     The above may make plantings less attractive to SWD and will improve insecticide spray coverage

    Canopy management

    Photo credit: http://www.eandborchards.com

    (3) Insecticides

    MOST EFFECTIVE INSECTICIDES AGAINST SWD INCLUDE

     ORGANOPHOSPHATES (2 OPTIONS LISTED)

     CARBAMATES (2 OPTIONS LISTED)

     PYREHTROIDS (3 OPTIONS LISTED)

     SPINOSYNS (3 OPTIONS LISTED)

     ANTHRANILIC DIAMIDE (1 OPTION LISTED)

    Choose / use insecticides wisely

    Effective and safest options

    to minimize impact to non-

    targets

    F = fair G = good E = excellent

    The alternate row middle method involves skipping an alley so that only one side of each plant row is treated.

    During the next application, the spray equipment travels down these skipped alleys and treats the previously non-sprayed side of the rows so that, after two temporally separated applications, both sides of each planting row are treated.

    Alternate row middle and border sprays provide control of SWD similar to complete spray applications, thereby showing that reduced spray application strategies are important management tools for this pest.

    For use with spray equipment

     Reduced spray treatments against SWD resulted in higher numbers of natural enemies and lowered input costs.

     Reduced spray strategies may be implemented in low-risk situations and perhaps integrated with other non- insecticide pest management tools

    Microbial-based insecticide.

     Spinosad is a fast-acting, somewhat broad-spectrum material that acts on the insect primarily through ingestion, or by direct contact with a spray droplet or a newly treated surface.

     Cost: ca. $ 400 per quart.

    Spinosad residues on the leaf surface are be broken down by sunlight. Half-lives for spinosyn A are 1.6 to 16 days depending

    on the amount of sunlight receivedEntrust: One of the most effective OMRI-listed products against SWD

    Organic (OMRI-listed) options

     Pyrethrins are natural-botanical insecticides found in daisy-like Chrysanthemum flowers.

     Pyrethrins are contact poisons which quickly penetrate the nerve system of the insect.

     Cost: Ca. $510 for 1 gallon

    Organic (OMRI-listed) options

  • IPM Basics, Lincoln University IPM Program & Univ. of Missouri Extension

    05/15/2013

    6

    Spinetoram is a new chemical in the spinosyn class of insecticides

     It is a semi-synthetic spinosyn (not for certified orga