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Transcript of SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT

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SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Sport & the Individual AGGRESSION IN SPORT Slide 2 Aggressive Behaviour Zinedine Zidane headbutts Marco Materazzi (2006) Mike Tyson bites off Evander Holyfields ear (1997) John McEnroe swears at the umpire (1981) Slide 3 Defining Aggression Hostile aggression Intent is to harm Normally an emotion (anger) Instrumental aggression Means to an end Slide 4 Assertiveness John Silva (1980) goal directed it aims for a particular purpose not intended to harm using only legitimate force (within the rules of the game) not breaking the agreed rules of the sport (eg. Marquis of Queensbury) Slide 5 Studying Behaviour Ivan Pavlov (1849- 1936) Studied saliva in dogs FOOD + BELL dog salivates BELL only salivation CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Power of association Slide 6 Behaviourism Pavlovs ideas inspired BEHAVIOURISM Theory that behaviour can be understood without recourse to mind Focus on observed behaviour, not invisible cognitions Very influential in middle of 20 th century Slide 7 Operant Conditioning B F Skinner (1904-90) developed Pavlovs ideas The Skinner Box Positive Reinforcement introduce food Negative Reinforcement remove electric shock Conditioned response press lever Slide 8 Slide 9 Conditioning & Aggression PAVLOV aggressive behaviour is associated with a cue Alcohol? Punk music? Crystal Palace fans? SKINNER aggressive behaviour has been reinforced in the past By success? excitement? attention? Slide 10 Social Learning In the 1970s, Albert Bandura developed these ideas further with Social Learning Theory (S.L.T.) Vicarious Learning We can learn complex behaviour from role models Especially aggression 1961 bashing Bobo experiment Slide 11 Social Learning through TV In 1965 Bandura replicated his 1961 study The role model was a boy (Rocky) who attacked Bobo on TV 3 conditions different endings (1) Rocky is rewarded (2) Rocky is punished (3) No reaction to Rocky Slide 12 Social Learning through TV 2 Children imitated Rocky in condition 1 and 3 Less imitation in condition 2 Bandura then rewarded children for imitating Everyone imitated children learn from TV even when they dont imitate! children learn from TV even when they dont imitate! Slide 13 Criticisms Not all aggressive behaviour is cued or reinforced In fact, a lot of it is frowned on Parents, teachers & coaches all punish aggression Most role models are NON- aggressive A more sophisticated explanation is needed Slide 14 FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 1 The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Developed by John Dollard (1939) Aggression is normal response to frustration Frustration occurs when a conditioned response is withheld EG your serve goes into the net Slide 15 FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 2 Neal Miller (1941) was one of Dollards associates Found Dollards theory too extreme Does frustration ALWAYS produce aggression? What about cognitions? Close to achieving goal (eg falling in the final lap) Frustration is caused deliberately (eg being tripped) Frustration seems arbitrary or unfair (eg a bad line-call) Slide 16 FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION 3 How can we MEASURE aggression to test these theories out? Donnerstein & Wilson (1976) Ps can give electric shocks to test subjects who make mistakes (actually confederates, faking shocks) In one condition, test subjects are rude/abusive Angry Ps give more shocks! Slide 17 The Instinct Theory A different approach Aggression is innate Freud said aggression was inborn drive, similar to sex or hunger Acting out aggression cleanses us removes stress and tension Catharsis Slide 18 The Instinct Theory 2 Difficult to measure instinctual aggression (its unconscious) Inkblot tests? Observations? Leonard Berkowitz (1972) questions this idea Surely watching violence makes us MORE violent, not less? Slide 19 Testing Catharsis Robert Arms et al (1979) Some participants watch ice hockey & wrestling Control group watches swimming Compare self-reports of hostility at the end Audience of violent sport is more aggressive (aggressive emotions not behaviour!) Slide 20 Summing Up 1 Aggression may be a learned response Pavlov Skinner Bandura Or a learned response to frustration Dollard Miller Alternatively, it may be an instinct that needs to be expressed Freud Slide 21 Summing Up 2 Learning theory of aggression very useful Suggests strategies for controlling aggression But ignores personality, disposition Ignores motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression) Determinist Slide 22 Summing Up 3 Instinct theory of aggression less useful No clear strategies for controlling aggression (psychoanalysis?) Personality screening? Focus on motivation (hostile vs instrumental aggression) Less determinist (willpower, self- restraint) Slide 23 Managing Aggression 1 Raymond Novaco (1975) argues (like Freud) that aggression is useful, but often inappropriate Novaco Anger Inventory psychometric test to measure appropriate aggression Likert scale (SA, A, NAND, D, SD) You are talking to someone and they dont answer you You are talking to someone and they dont answer you You are trying to concentrate, but someone is tapping their foot You are trying to concentrate, but someone is tapping their foot Slide 24 Managing Aggression 2 Raymond Novaco (1975) developed Anger Management Based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Changing thinking changed behaviour Theory: aggression is over compensation for problems in relationships displaced onto wrong targets Solution: identify problems, teach new ways of handling them Slide 25 Managing Aggression 3 SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING Come up with self-statements make them less negative Relaxation techniques Assertiveness training ROLE PLAYING Taking the role of the victim Practising different ways of handling conflict Slide 26 Does it work? John Brunelle et al (1999) 57 male footballers (age 18-28) 3 conditions for anger management during weekly practice session: 1.role-play (live demonstration, act out responses) 2.anger awareness (discussion, journals) 3.Control (no intervention) Observation & self reports over 15 matches role-play had least aggression, followed by anger awareness