Specific Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia Catherine CC Lam Child Assessment Service Hong Kong.

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Transcript of Specific Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia Catherine CC Lam Child Assessment Service Hong Kong.

  • Specific Learning Disabilities & Dyslexia

    Catherine CC LamChild Assessment Service Hong Kong

  • What are Specific Learning Disabilities and Dyslexia?

  • Specific Learning Disabilities & Developmental Dyslexia Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) is a term that refers to a group of disorders manifested as significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening (), speaking () , reading (), writing() or mathematical abilities (), despite access to conventional teaching.

  • These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and neurobiological in origin, with onset in childhood and extending beyond it. Language processing difficulties distinguish SLD as a group.

  • SLD is not the direct result of sensory impairment, mental retardation, social and emotional disturbance or environmental influences (e.g. cultural differences or insufficient / inappropriate instruction).

  • Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed of processing (),working memory (), phonological recoding (), fine-grained auditory and/or visual processing (), sequencing (), organization (), and motor coordination ().

  • Some individuals with SLD have outstanding skills. Some may have skills that are masked by their SLD, while other individuals may have strengths in aspects not affected by their SLD.

  • Developmental Dyslexia is one of the specific learning disabilities, characterized by difficulties with accurate and fluent word recognition, word reading and writing to dictation or spelling.

  • Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and further acquisition of knowledge through print.

  • Unexpected discrepancy exists between learning aptitude and achievement in school in one or more basic subject areas.

  • It is acknowledged that SLD may co-occur with other developmental disorders. Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder ADHD (/), with its own different neurological basis, diagnosis and treatment, is not a form of SLD, but may also occur in individuals with SLD.

  • Facts about SLDGenerally reported prevalence: 5% -15%Hong Kong: 10% - 12% 80% of people with SLD have problems with reading and language

  • A lifelong condition that often occurs in familiesWith good intervention, dyslexic individuals can compensate well although features remain

  • Differential Diagnosis SSLDAAttention deficit/ASDMMental delayEEmotional/Environment

  • Identifying symptomsPreschool (1)delay in talkingdifficulty with rhymes and rhythmdifficulty with remembering rote informationdifficulty in remembering and following directions

  • Identifying symptomsEarly Primary School (2)difficulty in learning letter /character symbols and their soundsconfusion of similar word parts / lettersunusual reading and dictation / spelling errors

  • Identifying symptomsEarly Primary Schooldifficulty in remembering spelling and writing of words over time

  • Identifying symptomsLate Primary School (3) significant difficulty in reading and writingdifficulty in comprehension from textdifficulty in organizing ideas in text writing

  • Identifying symptomsSecondary School (4) Continuing difficulties in reading and writingdifficulties in notes takingdifficulties in learning second language

  • Identifying symptomsOther frequent featuresspecial talentsorganizational difficultiesdifficulties in mathematicsdifficulties in handwritingdifficulties in social relations

  • What are the most important things to do about SLD?

  • Why is it urgent to help early?

    Each year lost will cost 2-3 years to catch up

  • Learn to read : P1/P2Read to Learn : P3 on

  • Screening and DiagnosisEvaluation to includenature of the problembasic academic skill levelseligibility for special education services

  • Screening ToolsPreschool()Primary: (Early Intervention & Identification Checklist eii.edb.hkedcity.net) (The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behaviour Checklist for primary school pupils)Secondary: (CLAAS)

  • InterventionTTraining / TherapyEEvaluationSSupport (child/ family)TTeaching (specific programs)

  • 3 aspects to help a student with SLD

  • Remediation,Compensation


  • Critical areas to promote in Hong Kong

    ParentsAwareness of condition Understanding of childrens specific needsAbility to seek appropriate support

  • Critical areas to promote in Hong Kong

    Special personnel Training for different levels of SEN knowledge and skillsRelated personnel in medical, allied health, psychology, social work etc.

  • Critical areas to promote in Hong Kong

    LegislationPromotion of public awareness of legal obligations and rights related to special education and SLD

  • Critical areas to promote in Hong Kong

    Official policiesSystem and central support and monitoring in identification, assessment, remediation and accommodations

  • Critical areas to promote in Hong KongInvolvement of the wider communityNon-government organizations Private organizationsAvailability of related personnel