Speaking Skills

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  • The words of English Language are classified as Parts of Speech and are named according to their functions. This means that every word, depending on its use, falls into one of the following categories.

  • PARTS OF SPEECHVerbNounAdjectiveAdverbPronounPrepositionConjunctionInterjection

  • THE NOUN: a noun is a name of a person, animal, place or thing.Example: student

    THE VERB: a verb may be said to be a doing word or an action word.Example: pass, is

    THE ADJECTIVE: an adjective describes a noun.Example: hardworking

    THE ADVERB: an adverb generally modifies a verb.Example: poorly

  • THE PRONOUN: a pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.Example: she

    THE PREPOSITION: a preposition shows the relation between one thing and another.Example: to

    THE CONJUNCTION: a conjunction is a word used to join words and clauses.Example: so

    THE EXCLAMATION/INTERJECTION: an exclamation or interjection expresses sudden emotion.Example: Good luck Azwana!


    A Noun is a name of anything. It is the name of a thing, a person, an animal, a bird, place, idea, subject, feeling, etc.To find a Noun in a sentence, we ask the question, What? Or Who? Before or after the Verb in the sentence.

    Examples:Cats eat fish

    What eat fish? (Cats = Noun)Cats eat what? (Fish = Noun)

    Ahmad saw a mouse.Who saw a mouse? (Ahmad = Noun)Ahmad saw what? (a mouse = Noun)

    Other examples of nouns are; pencil, tiger, sparrow, London, freedom, hospital, goodness, Peter, etc

  • KINDS OF NOUNSThere are four (4) kinds of Nouns, namely:

    Common NounsProper NounsAbstract NounsCollective Nouns

  • A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.

    Examples: river, woman, bank, country, ocean, school, shop, town, etc

    A proper noun is the special name of a particular person, place, etc. A proper noun always begins with Capital Letter.

    Examples: Malaysia, Ahmad, Serdang, EDU Mall etc.

    An abstract noun is the name of something that we can only think of or feel but cannot see.

    Examples: anger, thirst, freedom, pleasure, hunger, strength, wisdom, etc

    A collective noun is the name of a number of persons or things taken or thought of as one.

    Examples: a group of nurses, a gang of robbers, a bunch of keys, a team of doctors, a list of patients, a set of tools, etc

  • NUMBER OF NOUNSCountable Nouns Uncountable Nouns

    Countable Nouns are nouns that can be counted. We usually use the expression a, an, a few, several, many, a large number of, etc with Examples: man, hospital, wheelchair, etc

    Uncountable Nouns are nouns that cannot be counted. We usually use the expression a little, much, and a great deal of, etc with Examples: solution, patience, punctuality, ice, flour, sugar, dust, food, etc

  • A Singular Noun represents one person, animal, place or thing. Example: a boy, a book, a pen, etc

    A Plural Noun represents more than one person, animal, place or thing. Examples: boys, books, pens, nurse, etc. We also form Plural Nouns by adding -es, -ies, -en,, etc. Examples: boxes, babies, men, etc

    Pair Nouns are nouns that come in pairs. These nouns are used in plural forms.Examples: A pair of jeansA pair of shoesA pair of glasses

    Some Nouns are always spelled in plural forms even though they are singular.Examples: name of diseases (measles, mumps)Name of subjects (economics, mathematics)Others (species)


    A Verb is a saying-word that are used to name actions. It is the most important words in a sentence. Every sentence must have a verb.

    Verbs can be divided into two categories:1) Main verbExamples: insert, move, console, exhale etc.

    2) Be verbExamples: am, is, are, was, were

  • The verb is a word used to say something about a person or thing. It tells us what a person or thing does.

    Examples:Ahmad eats every day.Ahmad reads every day.Ahmad plays tennis everyday. The words, eats, reads and plays tell us what Ahmad does. They are called Verbs.A verb is not always one word. It may be made up of more than one word.

    Examples:Siti is playing badmintonHe was beaten by his father.He will go tomorrow.The money has been lost.


    Adjectives are words that are used to describe and give more information about the Nouns.

    Examples:Staff Nurse Aziah is a caring person.Adjective - caring describes the noun person

    The ward is tidyAdjective tidy describes the noun ward

    Most Adjectives appear in two main positions.Before a nounExamples: The contaminated needle must be disposed of.

    2) After certain verbs like be, seem, appear, look, sound, smell, taste, feel, become, getExamples: The patient seems withdrawn today.The toilet in Medical Ward looks and smells awful.


    An Adverb is a word that adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. This means, it is a word that says something more about a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

    Examples:a) Ahmad came yesterday.(came = verb)(yesterday = adverb)

    b) That is very beautiful flower.(beautiful = adjective)(very = adverb)

    c) The rain stopped quite suddenly.(suddenly = adverb)(quite = adverb)

  • Adverbs are divided into the following classes according to their use.

    Adverbs of manner are used to show actions are carried out.Examples: He eats alone.The doctor examines his patients thoroughly.

    Adverbs of place are used to indicate where actions/activities happen.She searched for the psychiatric patient everywhere.I shall meet you here tomorrow.

    Adverbs of time are used to indicate when actions/activities happen.Examples:The surgeons are performing the operation now.We have already documented the procedure.

  • Adverbs of degree are used to indicate the relative condition of actions/activities.Examples:The surgical wound is healing very well.The Admission and Emergency Department is quite busy during the festive season due to the increase in road accidents.

    Adverbs of frequency are used to show how often actions or activities are carried out.Examples:Patients in the Intensive Care Unit must always be monitored.She constantly complains of angina.


    A Pronoun are words that are used to replace Nouns. There are 2 types of Pronouns that we are going to deal with.

    1) Personal pronounsExamples: I, you, she, he, we, they, it.

    2) Possessive pronounsExamples: mine, yours, hers, his, ours, theirs, its.

    Example:Rahim has a car. He likes it. He drives it every day.

    The words He and it in the second and third sentences are used for or instead of the Nouns Rahim and car in the first sentence. This is done to avoid repeating the same name too many times. The words He and it are used for the names or nouns Rahim and car and are called Pronouns.


    A preposition is a word which is used before a Noun or Pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence.

    Example:His hat is on his head.(on = preposition)(head = noun)

    He walked past the door.(past = preposition)(door = noun)

    They were in the room.(in = preposition)(room = noun)

  • Preposition can indicate:-

    Direction:Siti walked towards me.Sam went to town.Aishah came into our classroom.

    Position:Rahimah sat on the table.We all live under one roof.The burglar jumped over the fence.

    Time:You can meet me at 4.00 pm tomorrow evening.I walk around the Lake Gardens in the evening.He always comes home on time for dinner.

  • By Someone:The story was written by Ahmad.This photograph was taken by Prem.The song was sung by Aishah.

    By Something:Mohan sent the letter by Pos Laju.Peter contacted me by telephone.Sheila went to PJ by bus.

    With Something/Someone:Sam cut the fruits with a sharp knife.Segaran cleaned the carpet with a vacuum cleaner.I went for a holiday with my family.

  • Quantity of Something:I gave my girlfriend a bouquet of roses on Valentines Day.Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water.

    Of Something:The teacher made the naughty students stand in front of the class.He kept the important documents on top of the cupboard.

    Like Someone/Something:She sings like Ning Baizura.Ali behaves like a gangster.The boxer walks like a gorilla.


    A conjunctions are words or phrase that are used to join words, phrases and sentences.Example: as, since, due to, in order to, although, even though

    The functions of conjunctions;Addition or similar ideasExamples: And, not only but also, both and, neither nor

    2) Cause and effectExamples: Because, since, as, so, so that, so that, as long as, as a result, consequently, therefore, due to

  • 3) TimeExamples: after, before, when, until, as soon as, once

    4) ContrastExamples: but, yet, still, however, nevertheless, although, even though, though, despite, in spite of, whereas

    5) ConditionExamples: if, unless

    6) ChoiceExamples: or, either or


    A Interjections/Exclamations are words that are used to attract attention. An exclamation mark is normally found at the end of the sentence.

    To express surprise of an unexpected event/ feelings of panicOh my God! I am pregnant!To express admiration/satisfactionWow! The ward is so tidy!To express strong feelings such as disgust, dismay, regret etcPhew! The toilet stinks!When giving orders or commandsQuiet!Sentences that begin with what a! and How!What a lame excuse!W