Speaking skill presentation

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Transcript of Speaking skill presentation

  • 1. Speaking

2. WhatisSpeaking?
Speech is the vocalized form of human communication
Speechproductiontakes places in real time and itis linear, i.e.utterancebyutterance.
Planningisseverlylimited, therefore, itisthehardest of allfourskills.
3. Coceptualization and Formulation
4. ! Note that:
In English, utterancestendtohave a two-partstructure:
Topic + comment
5. Articulation
Itinvolvesthe use of theorgans of speechto produce sounds.
Sounds are produced in a continuousstream, somesoundsmergewithothers. Handbag, bakedbeans
Continualchanges in loudness, pitch direction, tempo and pausingservetoorganizethesoundsintomeaninfulwords and utterances.
Proficientsspeakers produce 15 phonemes a second.
6. Self-monitoring & repair
Itis a processthathappensconcurrentlywiththestages of conceptualization, formulation and articulation.
Self-monitoringmayresult in a slowingdown, pausing and backtrackingorrephrasing of anutterance.
7. Automaticity
8. Mean that a speakersattentionalresources are thinlystreched
9. ! Note that:
Beingunderpressureortiredwillaffect a speakers performance
10. ! Note that:
Speakingislikeanyotherskillsuch as drivingorplaying a musical instrument: the more youpractice, the more likelyyou are tobeabletochunksmallunitsintolargerones.
11. Fluency
Its not onlyaboutspeed, butpausingisequallyimportant.
However, frequentpausingis a suresign of a struggling speaker.
Natural sounding pauses| are thosethatoccur at theontersection of clauses, | oraftergroupsof wordsthatforma meaningfulunit.|
12. Fluency
13. Interactionand turn-taking
Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue isinvolved in speaking.
Turn-takingisnegotiatedbecausespeakers are familiar withthe rules and skills of turn-taking. Two rules are tobefollowed:

  • Long silences are tobeavoided

14. Listen whenotherspeakers are speaking